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The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

Winter 2004 

Volume II Issue 4 

Number 74 

Knight Letter is the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. 

It is published twice a year and is distributed free to all members. 

Subscriptions, business correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed 

to the Secretary, PO Box 204, Napa CA 94559. 

Annual membership dues are U.S. $20 (regular) and $50 (sustaining). 

Submissions and editorial correspondence should be sent to 

the Editor, preferably by email (, 

or mailed to PO Box 2006, Mill Valley CA 94942. 

ISSN 0193-886X 

Mark Burstein, Editor in Chief 

Matthew Demakos, Editor of "The Rectory Umbrella" 

Andrew H. Ogus, Designer 

The Leivis Carroll Society of North America 

Alan Tannenbaum, 

Mark Burstein, 

Cindy Watter, 

Front Coxier: 

"The Photographer Stands on his Head." Illustration 

by Harry Furniss for W. Kayess, "The Land of the Wonderful Co. 

in Harry Furniss 's Christmas Annual 1905. 

Facing Inside Back Cover: 

"The Mouse's Tale." Illustration by Harry Furniss 

for "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," published 

in The World's Great Books, 

Amalgamated Press, London, 1909. 





Anya, Aleesah, andAl'ka 

The Metamorphoses oi Alice \n Russian 

Maria Isakova 


Just Say Fresno! 
Mark Burstein 


Harry Furniss in Wonderland 
Ruth Berman 


"Fve Had To Ask You Tiuice": Addinsell's Double Mice 
Gary Brockman 


Four More Contemporary Reviews o/Sylvie and Bruno and 

5ylvie and Bruno Concluded 

August A. Imholtz.Jr. and Clare Imholtz 





In Memoriam: Hilda Bohem, Frank Thomas, 

Susan Sontag, Frances Hansen 


Collecting Lewis Carroll 
Hilda Bohem 


Devra Kunin 




Alan Tannenbauni 



Frances Hansen 


A Yodie-Dodo 

Andrew Ogus 


Smoke and Mirrors 

Christian Bok 


Speaking About Alice 
Linda Sunshine 





Youth in Asia 

Farenheit 451 

Something about Alice? 

Barry More 

Rent Asunder 

It 's Really Bad Dad 
Sarah Adams 

Stay Azvake 
Sarah Adams 

The Houle Thing 

By All Accounts 

Jenny Woo If 




You Can Take it With You 

A Dark and Stormy Night 

Teenage Wasteland 

Sic, Sic, Sic 



Books — Articles — Cyberspace — Conferences and 

Lectures — Exhibitions — Performances — Awards— 

A uctions — Media — Th ings 

' "^ ■ - i .nyiujtu. 

In winter, when the fields are white. . . 

With all the electoral madness in Ukraine, as a former Soviet Republic gives the U.S. a lesson 
in the proper way to correct a corrupt election, it is fitting and proper that our lead article 
in "The Rectory Umbrella" is by a most intelligent and perceptive young woman from that 

Harry Furniss, who is well known to us for his drawings in the Sylvie and Bruno duad, is 
less known for having provided illustrations to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, which were 
first published in The World's Great Books, edited by Arthur Mee and J. A. Hammerton (Lon- 
don: Amalgamated Press, 1909, in five volumes), and reprinted in the U. S. in The Book of 
Knowledge (The Grolier Society, 1910, in twenty volumes). Collectors are hereby alerted to 
be scouring flea markets, old book stores, and online sources for volume ten of the Grolier 
series, which is the only one containing the Furniss drawings. See also KI^ 59:15 and vari- 
ous compendia of AZzc^ illustrators. Our own Ruth Berman has recently uncovered another 
Furniss connection to Lewis Carroll, here discussed in print for the first time. 

For many of us, the Eva Le Gallienne/Florida Friebus/Richard Addinsell theatrical pro- 
ductions of Alice have either been legendary, or available to us only in vinyl records, CDs, 
videos, and DVDs of revivals (one famously starring Sir Richard Burton and his daughter 
Kate). Member Gary Brockman, "never once considering how in the world [he] was to get 
out again," began investigating this trail, and came upon a remarkable discovery. 

Meanwhile, in "Mischmasch," we have unearthed some other mismatched treasures: a 
curious poem from an 1874 Punch that was apparently the first mention of Carroll's work 
(they seem not to have been aware of a certain sequel, either); an anecdote involving Theo- 
dore Roosevelt; lyrics from Celine Dion; and a couple of Carroll-themed puzzles, one origi- 
nal, one from 1964 that The Book of Lewis Carroll Crosswords, edited by Alfreda Blanchard 
(Lewis Carroll Society [U.K.], 1992) did not include. Also a ("factual," according to Internet 
sources) account of Carroll's drug use, which turned out to be a delightfully deliberate fan- 
tasy; not to mention the letters, reviews, notes, ravings, and other features that have become 
part and parcel of this fine journal. 

Herein also dwell several articles relating to the autumn gathering in Fresno, one by the 
admirably (and legitimately) yclept Linda Sunshine, and one by the much-missed and greatly 
beloved Hilda Bohem, printed here in tribute to her. 

Our contributors, other than those listed in bylines, include Dr. Francine Abeles, Desne 
Ahlers, Ruth Berman, Joel Birenbaum, Gary Brockman, Llisa Demetrios Burstein, Sandor 
Burstein, David Calkins, Angelica Carpenter, Geoffrey Chandler, Matt Demakos, August Im- 
holtz, Clare Imholtz, Sergiy L. Isakov, Janet Jurist, Lou Kesten, Devra Kunin, Charlie Lovett, 
Stephanie Lovett, Bruce McKinney, Doris Milgrom, Fred Ost, Mark Richards, Andrew Sellon, 
Daniel Singer, Mark Stoll, Alan Tannenbaum, Maria Vinogradova, Edward Wakeling, and the 
Watter family (Cindy, Charlotte, Nick, and Neil). And special thanks to our intrepid Tum- 
tum-er, Mickey Salins. 

. . . / sing a song for your delight. 

Mark Burstein 




The Metamorphoses of Alice in Russian 


^his article undertakes a challenging task: to 
explain, without undue evaluation, the differ- 
ences among three Russian versions of Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland, a most difficult text to trans- 
late because of its playful character. The topic is 
closely connected with the so-called "discussion on 
literalism" which took place in Russia during the 
1980s among translators, linguists, Hterary critics, and 
writers themselves. The main question under consid- 
eration was whether to translate literally (to the "let- 
ter") or freely (to the "spirit"). The degree of literal- 
ism and freedom was also a matter of acute discussion. 
M. L. Gasparov names "the context length"' as a main 
criterion of differentiation between literal and free 
translation. The correlation between the original text 
and the translated text, which claims to be equivalent 
to the original, is measured by the word, syntagma, 

Anya, to explain the three names in the title, is Vladimir 
Nabokov's Russianized translation of the name Alice. Aleesah is 
the transliterated (not transcribed) name usually used in Russ- 
ian translations. And AVka is what Boris Zakhoder wanted to call 
the heroine of his paraphrase, though he decided on Aleesah. 

phrase, verse, stanza, passage or even the whole of 
the writing, such as a poem. The shorter the context, 
the more literal the translation, although Gasparov 
does not offer the traditional panacea of a "golden 
mean" between these grades of literalism. On the 
contrary, he affirms that each translator must choose 
a tendency to comply with one of two objectives of 
the translation: to please the reader (free translation) 
or to acquaint the reader with a text approximating 
the original (literal translation). 

Of the three different Wonderland translations 
considered here — by Vladimir Nabokov, Nina De- 
murova, and Boris Zakhoder^ — only Zakhoder's par- 
aphrase of the original text can be strictly attributed 
to free translation. The other two bear features of 
both tendencies. One cannot seriously speak about 
purely literal translation of the Alice books, though 
Alexander R Olenich-Gnenenko undertook the task 
in 1940, which proved to be a failure.* 

Nabokov in his translation profited by Lewis Car- 
roll's ad\dce — he didn't try to stop a Bandersnatch — 
and made an attempt to change the background of 
the book. In his translation, the realia of Victorian 



B cxpaHe 


Alice in Wonderland, tr. Nina Demurova, ill. Yuri Vashchenko 
(Moscow: Kniga, ipSz) 

life (the names, events, and characters) have been re- 
placed by Russian ones, though Nabokov was not 
consistent in Russianizing the book. Alice, for exam- 
ple, turns into Anya; Mabel into Asya; the White Rab- 
bit into something like Rabbit Cowardson, Esq.; Mary 
Ann into Masha; Bill into Yasha; Pat into Pet'ka; and 
the sisters Elsie, Lacie, and Tillie into Masya, Pasya, 
and Dasya. Nabokov couldn't change the King and 
Queen into the Tsar and Tsaritza because of way cards 
are named in Russian; strictly speaking, the queen in 
card games is translated into Russian as "dame" or 
"lady." Though some translators point this out — Za- 
khoder, for example — others do not. Incidentally, in 
Through the Looking-Glass translators encounter the 
same problem. The queen chess piece is called "ferz" 
in Russian, and only amateurs call it a "koroleva" (a 
queen as in the queen of England). Translators had 
to preserve this nonprofessional name of the piece in 
Russian, however, in order to keep the wordplay, 
troubled as well by the masculine gender of the pro- 
fessional Russian word for the chess queen. If it is 
clear why Nabokov kept kings and queens, it is not 
clear why he kept the Duchess, who could have easily 
been transformed into a Countess since the title of 
duchess is absent in the Russian hierarchy. Nabokov 
may have been more keen on hierarchy than most, 
and so the Duchess remained a Duchess. Another 
strange element of Nabokov's translation is his reten- 
tion of the name Dinah even though it is not a usual 
name for a cat in Russian. 

It is an acknowledged fact that Nabokov suc- 
ceeded in translating characters. His Henynaxa, an 
amalgam of "nonsense" and "tortoise," for example, 
is a decent equivalent of the Mock-Turde. Zakhoder 
merely renamed the character Pbi6HbiH fle;iHKaTec, 
"Fish Delicacy," and the picture looks just the same as 
the Mock-Turde, but the phenomenon of mock-tur- 
tle soup is not explained. Demurova's translation 
keeps him unaltered. Her variant Hepenaxa KBasH, 
"Quasi-Turde," allows for the original pun. "It's the 
thing Mock Turde Soup is made from," is translated 
as "3to to, h3 Hero AenaiOT KBasH-HepenauiHH cyn"("It's 
the thing from which quasi-turde soup is cooked")." 
This transladon seems to be difficult for children un- 
familiar with Ladn. The Cheshire Cat — another char- 
acter, like the Hatter, causing translation troubles be- 
cause of the phrasal nature of his name — was mere- 
ly replaced by his possible Russian brother, 
MacneHHMHbiH Kot, a "Shrovetide Cat." It plays upon 
the Russian proverb "ne see Koxy Mac;ieHHua" ("not 
every day is Shrovetide for a cat") . If we try to retrans- 
late this character back into English, he might be 
called a "Sunday Cat," a cat for whom "every day is 
Sunday." The other two translators had to explain to 
readers the historical background of the saying. De- 
murova gives Martin Gardner's comments on it in a 
footnote. Zakhoder included the explanation in the 
body of the text. This is supposed to be one of his 
major liberties. In his paraphrase the narrator often 
interrupts the action in order to explain something 
or — sacrilege! — to sermonize to young readers. In 
Carroll's Alice, the author's remarks are very rare. 
The same difficulty is encountered with the transla- 
tion of the Hatter. Nabokov was the only one to keep 
him mad in his translation, the other texts turning 
his madness into stupidity, though masterfully com- 
bining the idea of obtuseness and of the trade of 
making hats. Demurova's variant, BonBaHmHK, is the 
derivative from the Russian word 6o;iBaH, "hat-block" 
or "fathead." In back translation he might be called 
"Fat-hat." Zakhoder's name, III;iflna, is a play upon 
the meanings of the Russian word m;iHna, "hat" and 
"butterfingers," or "a dull un-enterprising person." 
In many other translations the idea of the Hatter's 
madness was preserved but not explained. Nabokov 
managed to give a purely Russian background to his 
madness. The Hatter uses in his speech a nonexist- 
ent month "Marchober," coined by Gogol in SanncKH 
CyMacmeAmero (The Diary of a Madman),^ where it 
sounds like "Martobr." 

Many other accoutrements are translated into 
Russian in Nabokov's Anya. The French Mouse came 
over with Napoleon, for example, and she quotes 
from the history of Russia. The Caucus-Race is re- 
placed by the Russian-sounding game Kypa;iecbi, an 
amalgam of a "merry-go-round" and an obsolete 
Russian verb meaning "to fool around." Moreover, 

the address of Anya's legs is Russian, and Nabokov 
gives Yasha, the Lizard, some water, notably not 
brandy. Though they still play English croquet, the 
tea-party takes place at the traditional five o'clock, 
with only a few translators, such as Demurova, pre- 
serving the original six o'clock. It seems that however 
hard Nabokov tried to Russianize the book, parts of 
England slipped through. 

Nabokov's translation combines features of both 
free and literal translation. One of the gravest liber- 
ties is his departing from Swiftian tradition in Car- 
roll, the tradition of exact measures. Almost all meas- 
ures in the original are replaced by descriptive 

"a little door about fifteen inches high," 
"KpoiueMHaH ABcpb" ("a tiny door") 

"shedding gallons of tears," "npoAon^a;ia tihtb 
noTOKH c^es" ("she kept shedding torrents of 

"large pool all round her, about four inches 
deep and reaching half down the hall," 
"o6pa30Banocb rny6oKoe oaepo" ("there ap- 
peared a deep lake") 

"when she was nine feet high," "6yAyHH 
BeAHKaHineH" ("when being a giant") 

"till she was about a foot high," 
"yMCHbrnHBiiiHCb" ("till she became smaller").** 

In those rare cases when Nabokov kept the origi- 
nal measurement, he didn't metricate it. Another re- 
markable feature of Nabokov's translation is that he 
was amazingly careless about the original figures. For 
example, in Carroll's Wonderland the King reads out 
Rule Forty-two,' but in Anya the rule is number forty- 
four. During interrogation in the court, the Hatter, 
answering the King, names the tea-party date, which 
no one affirms: 

"When did you begin?" ... 

"Fourteenth of March, I think it was," he said. 
"Fifteenth," said the March Hare. 
"Sixteenth," added the Dormouse.* 

In Nabokov's translation one date is altered, 
which causes partial loss of the humoristic effect and 
the absurd: 

— Koraa Tbi HanaA? . . . 

— MeTbipHaAii,aToro MapTo6pfl, Ka^ercH, — 

OTBeTmi OH. 

— HeTbipHaAi^aToro, — noAXBepAHA MapxcBCKHH 

— UlecTHaAUaToro, — npo6opMOTan Cohh. 

— When did you begin? . . . 

— Fourteenth of Marchober, I think it was, — 
he said. 

— Fourteenth, — affirmed the March Hare. 

— Sixteenth, — murmured the Dormouse. 

And these three figures total forty-four! 
As mentioned above, many habitants of Wonderland 
underwent changes, and not only formal as in the 
case of the Cheshire Cat. The White Rabbit, for ex- 
ample, turns into Rabbit Cowardson, Esq. The back- 
ground of the character is totally altered, with exces- 
sive English niceties — "Oh my ears and whiskers, 
how late it's getting!"" — turning into mere 
cowardice. Moreover, in his translation Nabokov 
omitted the funny episode with the "W. Rabbit" brass 
plate. (This loss can be compared to the loss of the 
similar joke in A. A. Milne's Winnie the Pooh, "Tres- 
passers W.") It seems that Zakhoder didn't appreci- 
ate this joke. He merely transliterated the inscription 
in his paraphrase to "B. KponHK" (which makes little 
sense, or rather little nonsense) and not to "B. 
KpoAHK," or "BcAbiH KpoAHK," as did Demurova. 
Nabokov also introduced the master's rudeness into 
the Rabbit's character: "Here! Come and help me 
out of this!"'" is translated as "Tlynme noMAH-Ka cioAa h 
noMorH MHC Bbi6paTfaCfl h3 3TOH ap^hh" ("Better come 
here and help me out of this crap") . His Rabbit also 
calls Pet'ka "you ass," even though Carroll's White 
Rabbit calls Pat "you goose," involving the possibility 
that Pat is of that species." 

Along with evident liberties, we find cases of lit- 
eralism in Nabokov's translation. For example, 
phrases dealing with Time and Nobody — "That gen- 
erally takes some time" and "unless it was written to 
nobody"'^ — are translated very close to the original 
text as if he tried to transfer possibilities of wordplay. 
At the same time, often when other translators use a 
more or less literal technique, Nabokov resorted to 
the opposite. Alice's description of her neighboring 
dog, for example, is altered almost beyond recogni- 
tion: "A little bright-eyed terrier, you know, with oh, 
such long curly brown hair!"'^ — "MancHbKHH 
apKornasbiH 4)okchk, b uioKonaAHbix KpanHHKax, c 
po30BbiM 6pK)mK0M, c ocTpbiMH ymaMw!" ("A little 
bright-eyed fox-terrier specked with chocolate brown, 
with pink belly, and pointed ears!") In his translation, 
Nabokov omitted the parentheses ("you know" and 
"oh"), diminishing the emotionality of the girl's 
phrase, and added descriptive details instead. Thus, 
Nabokov somehow replaced Alice's psychological re- 
action. Instead of one bright thing, the dog's hair, we 
see a consistent description of the animal as if de- 
picted by a naturalist, not by a child — though it could 
well have been a description of Nabokov's favorite 

But still in some respects Nabokov's translation is 
much more accurate and literal than the other two 
under consideration. One of the initial phrases of 
Wonderland can be called an accuracy test. Most 
translators preferred to paraphrase the strange- 
sounding "for the hot day made her feel very sleepy 
and stupid"'^ with a Russian equivalent "or >Kapbi ee 

luoHC Kjpj)o:i A 1 


A.uica ^ 





P^ iti.inn , riiPOBA.I ; 


^^WA' 'XlUlk'Plid ^j 








r^^^^r ^^^^^M^ "!^^^^W 


Alice in Wonderland, tr. Boris Zakhoder, ill. Eric Kincaid 
{Moscow: Ivarmshka, 1994) 

coBCCM pa3MopH;io" ("she sweltered in the heat"), as 
Zakhoder did, or with a more descriptive translation 
"Mbic;iH ee tckhh MCflneHHO h HecB«3HO — ox ^apw ee 
KnoHMno B coh" ("her thoughts flowed slowly and in- 
coherently — the heat made her sleepy," as Demurova 
did. But it seems that Carroll used this very expres- 
sion on purpose, opening Alice's inner world, dis- 
playing her consciousness and thoughts. Nabokov, 
perhaps understanding this, translates it much closer 
to the original: "Ona nyBCTBOBana ce6fi rnynoH h 
coHHOH — xaKOH 6hiji ^apKHH flCHb" ("She felt stupid 
and sleepy — for so hot was the day"). 

At the same time Nabokov in his translation pro- 
foundly changes Alice's psychological portrait. While 
Alice thinks "either the locks were too large, or the 
key was too small,"'-' — Anya's reaction is simple and 
unambiguous, "3aMKH 6fai;iH c;iHmKOM Be;iHKM" ("The 
locks were too large"). A bit later Carroll's descrip- 
tion in the original text is replaced by an exclamation 
mark in the translation, which brings the reader di- 
rectly to Anya's thought, without the author's media- 
tion. Alice "tried the litde golden key in the lock, and 
to her great delight it fitted," is translated as "Ona 
Bcynyna sonoTOH khiohmk b aaMOK — oh KaK paa 
noflxoflH;i!" ("She tried the little golden key in the 
lock — it fitted!") . Nabokov also graces Anya with an 
abstract mind. While Alice looks with quite definite 
caution on the bottle, "this bottle was not marked 
'poison,'""^ — Anya seeks an abstract caution, "na 
CKJiHHKc HHKaKoro npeAocTepe»<eHHH hc 6bi;io" ("there 
was no warning on the bottle"). 

Just as vsdth the bottle, while Alice observes 
"There was no label this time with the words 'DRINK 
]yj£ '"17 — Anya's thought is abstract, "Ha 3tot paa 
HHKaKOH noMCTKH Ha 6yTbinoHKe He 6bi;io" ("This time 
there was no label on the bottle"). Moreover, in an- 
other case Nabokov loses an easily translated joke (in 
the two other translations this joke is retained). Car- 
roll wrote, "[F]or this curious child was very fond of 
pretending to be two people. 'But it's no use now,' 
thought poor Alice, 'to pretend to be two people! 
Why, there's hardly enough of me left to make one 
respectable person!'"'" But in Nabokov's translation, 
the child's directness is replaced by sorrow alien to 
children's nature: "CxpaHHbiH stot pe6eHOK oMCHb 
nK)6iin npeflCTaBAHTb h3 ce6H nsyx /nofleft. — Ho sto 
Tenepb hh k neiviy, — noAyMa;ia 6e7i;Hafl Ahh. — BcAb ox 
MeHH ocxanocb xaK Ma^o! Ha hxo h ro^ycb?" ("This 
strange child liked very much pretending to be two 
people. — But it's no use now, — thought poor Anya, — 
there's left so little of me! What am I fit for?"). 

After the conversation with the Caterpillar, Anya 
asks herself more concrete questions than did Alice. 
Alice looks for the "two sides" of a perfectly round 
mushroom, while Anya is interested in its "right and 
left" sides. Then Anya, appearing to be more practi- 
cal than Alice, wants to know which bit will make her 
grow up, while Alice wonders, "And now which is 

In the next episode, an answer Anya gives seems 
more rational than Alice's. To the Duchess's remark 
"If everybody minded their own business... the world 
would go round a deal faster than it does,"^" Anya's 
response is more specific and scientifically grounded. 
Alice says, "Just think what work it would make with 
the day and night!" whereas Anya responds, 
"IloflyMaHxe xoAbKO, KaK yKopoxHACH 6bi ACHb" ("Just 
think, how the day would shorten.") It is strange how 
a seven-year-old girl can understand such matters. It 
is not difficult to learn the distance to the center of 
the Earth, but the above response presupposes logic. 

Another interesting feature of Nabokov's transla- 
tion is the polishing of the original text, adding some 
details which, to his mind, the original text lacks. For 
example, in his version, the Rabbit shows the direc- 
tion of his house "with angrily trembling paw," Anya 
comes to the Rabbit's room "with bluish wallpaper," 
and Anya is stated to be falling down the rabbit-hole 
"upright," as the original text only implies (even 
though the Andrei Gennadiev illustration has her up- 
side down). Nabokov also introduces phrases and 
lines into characters' speech, which are consistent 
with their character. For example, instead of the 
Queen's short speech, "That proves his guilt," — we 
read, "3xo flOKasbiBaex ere BHHOBHOcxb, KOHeHHO. 
HxaK, oxpy6..." ("This of course proves his guilt. So, 
off with his. . .") . This technique is usually used in free 

In "The Queen's Croquet-Ground," Lewis 
Carroll introduces different kinds of cards, play- 
ing upon their homonyms (words that sound 
alike with often the same spelling but having dif- 
ferent meanings). There were "ten soldiers car- 
rying clubs," "ten courtiers ... ornamented all 
over with diamonds," "[ten] royal children ... or- 
namented with hearts, "^'-^ and the three garden- 
ers equipped with spades. In the Russian transla- 
tions by Demurova and Zakhoder, only three of 
the four types of cards are presented (though in 
both translations we can find all four of them). 
Though all four together are met only in 
Nabokov's translation, two of them are intro- 
duced by homonyms, "flecHTb cojijxar c nHKaMH Ha 
nnenax" ("ten soldiers with pikes on shoulders"). 
This plays upon meanings of nHKa, "pike" and 
"spade." "JlecsiTh myxoB c 6y6HaMH" ("ten jesters 
with tambourines"), plays upon meanings of the 
plural of 6y6Hbi, "tambourines" and "diamonds." 
The other two suits play on words by means of a 
visual resemblance. The royal children are orna- 
mented with hearts, and the clubs are described 
as "ten courtiers with clover leafs in their button- 

It seems that Nabokov has changed the di- 
rect, courteous, and truthful Alice into another 
girl. Anya not only speaks in a different way but 
also thinks differently. She is more positive, par- 
ticular, abstract-minded, and at the same time 
more quick-tempered and curious than her British 
"colleague." It is a mystery why Nabokov, who trans- 
lated some inconspicuous details of the original al- 
most literally, should so seriously change Alice's psy- 
chology, sometimes to the opposite. In "A Mad 
Tea-Party," Nabokov again changes Alice's reaction. 
In response to the Hatter's remark about her hair, 
Alice "with some severity" (surely, as her governess 
would do) explains to him that it is very rude "to 
make personal remarks. "^^ Anya, by comparison, has 
simply lost her temper. Alice shows less interest and 
surprise about the Hatter's watch. She seems to keep 
up a conversation, while Anya is really interested and 
surprised. She "exclaimed" where Alice only "re- 
marked."^" Incidentally, many translators fall into the 
temptation of changing many occurrences of "said" 
to other emotionally colored verbs, though that is not 
the case with Demurova's translation. 

We must notice the discordance of opinions of 
the three translators on the Duchess's remark, "Be 
what you would seem to be."-^^ Nabokov's rendering 
of this line seems to be incorrect, "6yAb BcerAa caMa 
co6oh" ("always be yourself). Demurova sacrificed 
this episode for the sake of a compensatory pun. 
Only Zakhoder translated this remark as close to the 
text as possible, "ByAb xaKHM, KaKHM xonemb Kasaxbcfl" 
("Be what you want to seem to be"). This short re- 

The Caterpillar. Andrei Gennadiev for Anya in Wonderland, 
tr. Vladimir Nabokov (Leningrad: Children 's Literature, igSg). 

mark appears to be important because it expresses 
the reversed logic of Wonderland, which, in its turn, 
is a slightly exaggerated reflection of Victorian reality. 
The adequate translation of puns and wordplay 
is important to this text. But it is almost impossible to 
explain or to illustrate the inventiveness of the three 
translators, as it would be a grand work of retransla- 
tion, almost equal to a translation of Alice back into 
English: All we can do is comment. To begin with, 
mere literal translation of puns or wordplay has no 
meaning, and translators usually create equivalent 
wordplay in the desired language. For example, such 
puns as we meet in "Pig and Pepper" are a real chal- 
lenge for translators: 

"You see the earth takes twenty-four hours to 

turn round on its axis — " 

"Talking of axes," said the Duchess, "chop off 

her head!"^** 
Demurova created the pun based on a direct and 
phrasal meaning of the word o6opoT ("rotation," as of 
celestial bodies), and 6paTb b o6opoT ("to take care of 
something") in her slight expansion of the original: 

Beflb 3eM;iH coBcpmaeT o6opoT aa flBafluaxb 
HCTbipe Haca... 

— 06opoT? — noBTopM;ia repuorHHH aaflyMHHBO. 
H, noBepHysmHCb k KyxapKC, npM6aBH;ia: 

— Bo3bMH-Ka ee b o6opoT! Jljifi HaHa;ia oTTHnaJi 
eft ro/toBy! 

You see the earth takes twenty-four hours to 
turn round, if you care... 
— Talking of care? — said the Duchess thought- 

And added turning to the cook: 
— Take care of her! To begin with, chop off her 

But Demurova's translation seems to be ponder- 
ous. It takes twenty-two syllables, while the original is 
a very sharp and short nine syllables, which empha- 
sizes the Duchess's overreaction. Zakhoder's variant 
is shorter and thus better fits the Duchess's character. 
It is based on the Russian homophones ot BpamcHHa 
("because of revolution," that is, "rotation") and 
OTBpameHHe ("disgust"). The retranslation is not 
equal to Zakhoder's in form, but close enough in 

. . .Beflb Torfla 6bi ox apameHHa... 

— KcTaxM, 06 OTBpameHHH! — CKaaana 


. . .But then because of revolution. . . 

The Cheshire Cat. Andrei Gennadiev for Anya. in Wonderland, tr. Vladimir Nabokov 
(Leningrad: Children's Literature, igSg). 

— Revolution! — said the Duchess, — rebels are 

In Nabokov's translation this pun is not trans- 
ferred, but he uses a funny, ambiguous expression as 
compensation, "xyxapKa ym;ia c ronoBOH b cyn" ("the 
cook has got lost in the soup") . 

The next example under consideration is more a 
play on ideas, a more interesting concept when com- 
paring translations, than a play on words. During the 
mad tea-party, the Dormouse wakes with the words 
"that begins with an M, such as mousetraps, and the 
moon, and memory, and muchness — you know you 
say things are 'much of a muchness' — did you ever see 
such a thing as a drawing of a muchness?"? In 
Nabokov's translation we meet a newly coined word 
Ma;iOBaTOCTH, a possible antonym of the English 
"muchness," which can be translated as "litdeness": "c 
6yKBbi M., KaK, HanpHMcp, MbimenoBKH, mcchi^, h 

MbIC;iM, H ManOBaTOCTH... BHAC/IH Jin Bbl KOrfla-HM6yflb 

Hcpxeac ManoBaxocxH?" ("that begins with an M, such 
as mouse-traps, and the moon, and thoughts, and lit- 
tlenesses. . . . did you ever see the draft of a litdeness?") 
Zakhoder's variant seems to be the funniest of all: 
"Mbime;iOBKH, h mopkobkh, h MapxwmeK, h Ma;ibMHmeK, 
H MypamKH , h Mopa;ib. ... Tbi BHflena MypamKM, xoxa 6bi 
Ha KapxMHKax?" ("mouse-traps, and carrots, and mon- 
keys, and boys, and creeps, and the 
moral... Did you ever see creeps, at 
least in the pictures?") Demurova's 
translation is closest to the original: 

. . .HaHHHaercH Ha M, — npoAon^a;ia 

ona. — Ohh pHCOBaxtH MbimenoBKH, 

MecHU,, MaxeMaxHKy, MHoacecxBO. . . . 

Tbi Korfla-HH6yflb BHAe;ia, KaK 

pHcyiox MHO:«eCXBO? 

— MHO^cecxBO Hero? — cnpocKrta 


— HHHcro, — oxBenana Cohh. — 

npocxo MHO^eCXBO! 

. . .that begin with M, — she contin- 
ued. — They drew mouse-traps, and 
the moon, and the mathematics, 
and the muchness. . . . did you ever 
see how one draws muchness? 
— Muchness of what? — asked Alice. 
— Of nothing, — answered the Dor- 
mouse. — -Just muchness! 

While translating puns, Nabokov 
tries to keep to the original text as 
closely as possible, which seems para- 
doxical in the light of all the above- 
mentioned global changes of the orig- 
inal. While other translators get 
involved in creating multiple compen- 
satory puns — wordplay absent in the 
original text, created to compensate 

for the loss of some original puns — Nabokov only 
very rarely uses this technique. Moreover, most puns 
in his translation are very close to the original in form 
and, where possible, in meaning. 

Zakhoder's paraphrase, on the contrary, abounds 
in compensatory puns and deviations from the Car- 
roll text. It has already been mentioned that one of 
his greatest liberties was the alteration of the narra- 
tor's manner, with some of the narrator's comments 
contradicting Carroll's intention. Zakhoder actually 
moralizes. For example, direcdy after Alice reads the 
poem "3BepH, b uiKony co6HpaHTecfa" ("Animals, get 
ready for school") (a parody on the well-known di- 
dactic children's poem "flexH, b mKony co6MpaHTecb" 
("Children, get ready for school"), which the transla- 
tor provides in his commentary) , we read: "Tenepb, h 
HaACHDCb, BCCM noHHTHo, noHCMy Annca xaK 
paccTpoHnacb: 3th cthxh ropasao ;iyHme, a rnaBHoe 
no;ie3Hee xex, KOTopwe ona npoMna" ("Now, I hope, 
everybody understands why Alice was so sad: this 
verse [the one in the commentary] is better, and 
moreover, more useful than the one she recited"). 

Demurova's translation, while closer to the origi- 
nal text, is not flawless however. To justify' the stupid- 
ity of her new character, the so-called "Fat-hat," she 
introduced into the King's speech overfamiliarities 
alien to the original. Carroll wrote: 

"I'm a poor man, your Majesty," he began. 
"You're a very poor speaker," said the King."^^ 

Demurova translates this scene as: 

— H HeJIOBCK Ma/ieHbKHH, — nOBTOpH;! OH. — H H 

Bce jtyMan o 4)H7iHHe. . . 

— CaM Tbi 4)h;ihh, — cKaaan Kopo/ib. 

— I'm a little man, — he repeated. — ^And I was 

thinking about owls...?^' 

— You're yourself a silly owl! — said the King. 

It may sound funny in retranslation, but in Russ- 
ian the word "owl" doesn't have this connotation of 

In Nabokov's translation we encounter one more 
essential liberty. Alice's words "if anything would ever 
happen in a natural way again" are translated as 

"cxaHCT JIK >KH3Hb K0rfla-HH6yAb CHOBa npOCTOH H 

noHHTHOH" ("if life would ever become simple and 
natural again"). This is the main difference between 
Alice and Anya: Alice's life isn't as simple. We must 
notice that non-British readers have distinct unpleas- 
ant associations connected with these books. It has 
become commonplace that: 

Wonderland is what we Are. 
Oz is what we would hope and like to be.'" 
Now you see that Nabokov's translation, though 
Russianized and with some characters altered, still re- 
mains close to the original text and at the same time 
succeeds in transferring the atmosphere of the book 

to the Russian reader, which is not the case with Za- 
khoder's paraphrase. This fairy tale is funny and 
vivid, but it is not what Carroll actually wrote. Za- 
khoder took the liberty of profoundly changing the 
image of the narrator as well as Alice's character. He 
even omitted the final episode of Wonderland, which 
is commonly recognized as holding the romantic sad- 
ness, the clash of two alternative worlds, the real one 
and the fantastic. The translator confessed that it was 
sacrificed to tell the amusing and funny story of 
Aliska'' without sadness. 

Demurova's translation seems to be the closest to 
the original text, with the most of the intermediate 
text translated literally. At the same time, this way of 
translation appears to be distant from the Russian 
readers. Russians are not used to restrained, polite, 
conscientious little girls like Alice in children's books. 
Maybe that is one of the reasons that many other 
translators changed Alice's image so profoundly. One 
may point out Demurova's inventiveness when trans- 
lating a pun, but she sometimes alters the original 
text for the sake of compensatory puns. Thus, De- 
murova's translation may be called an amalgam of lit- 
eral and free translation, though she herself consid- 
ered it impossible to translate literally the puns, 
parodies, logical "shifts," "realized metaphors," and 
the irony in books like Alice's Adventures in Wonder- 

' M. R. FacnapoB, "BpiocoB h 6yKBa;iH3M," MacTcpcxBO nepcBOfla 
8 [M. L. Gasparov, "Brusov and Literalism," The Mastery of 
Translations] (1971): 87-125. 

^ JlbiOHC Kappo/ui, Ahh b cxpaHe nyflec, nepeBeflCHO B;iaflHMHpoM 
CHpHHbiM (BnaflHMHpa BnaflHMHpoBHna Ha6oKOBa), 
muiiocTpHpoBaHO AHflpecM reHHaflHesbiM (JleHHHrpaA: flexcKafl 
yiHTepaxypa, 1989) [Lewis Carroll, Anya in Wonderland, 
translated by Vladimir Sirin (Vladimir Nabokov) , illustrated 
by Andrei Gennadiev (Leningrad: Children's Literature, 
1989)],; JIbiohc Kapponji, 
A;iHca b cxpane lynec h CKBOSb aepKano m mxo xaM yBMfle/ia 
AjiHca, nepeBeACHO Hhhoh M. flcMypoBOH, HniiiocxpHpoBaHO 
flacoHOM TeHHHenoM (MocKBa: Hayxa, 1991) [Lewis Carroll, 
Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass and What 
Alice Found There, translated by Nina M. Demurova, illus- 
trated by John Tenniel (Moscow: Nauka, 1991)],; TlbJOHC Kspponn, 
A/iHca B Cxpane nyflec, nepecKaaaHO c aHr;iHHCKoro BopHcoM 
SaxoflepoM, MiLaiocxpHpoBaHQ SpHKOM KHHKeHflOM (MocKBa: 
HsaHyiuKa, 1994) [Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland, para- 
phrased by Boris Zakhoder, illustrated by Eric Kincaid 
(Moscow: Ivanushka, 1994)], 
alisa_zah.txt. The three translations were first published in 
1923 (illustrated by S. Zalshupin), 1978 (illustrated by John 
Tenniel), and 1971-72 (in three issues of the journal Pioner, 
illustrated by Victor Chizhikov) , respectively. Demurova's 
earlier translation, rather different from her later version, 
appeared in 1967 (in Sofia, illustrated by Peter Chuklev). 

' /IbiOHC KappoA;:, AviHca b cxpane nyflec, nepeBeflCHO 
A/icKcaHApoM n. OneHHHeM-rHeHeHKO, muiiocxpHpoBaHo 
fl^oHOM TeHHHe;ioM (PocxoB-Ha-floHy: PocxH3flax, 1940) 
[Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland, translated by Alexander 

p. Olenich-Gnenenko, illustrated by John Tenniel (Rostov- 
on-Don: Rostizdat, 1940)]. 

Lewis Carroll, "The Mock Turde's Story," in Alice's Adventures 
in Wonderland (London: Macmillan, 1866), 137. (Since 
online sources were used, references to the Russian edidons 
are omitted.) 

HHKo;iaH roronb, SanncKH CyMacmefliuero b H36paHHbie 
npoH3BefleHHH (MocKsa: PMno/i lOiaccHK, 2004), 689-705 
[Nikolai Gogol, "The Diary of a Madman" in Selected Prose 
(Moscow: Ripol Classic, 2004), 689-705]. See also the Eng- 
lish translation: Nikolai Gogol, The Diary of a Madman and 
Other Stories, translated by Andrew R. MacAndrew (New 
York: Signet, 1960), 22. Here translated as Martober. 

Carroll, "Down the Rabbit-Hole," "The Pool of Tears," and 
"A Mad Tea-Party," in Wonderland, 8, 17, 23, 1 11. 

Ibid., "Alice's Evidence," 180. 

Ibid., "Who Stole the Tarts?" 167. 

Ibid., "Down the Rabbit-Hole," 7. 

Ibid., "The Rabbit Sends in a Litde Bill,"48. 

Ibid., 49. 

Ibid., "The Lobster Quadrille" and "Alice's Evidence," 
148, 181. 

Ibid., "The Pool of Tears," 27. 

Ibid., "Down the Rabbit-Hole," 2. 

Ibid., 8. 

Ibid., 10. 

Ibid., "The Rabbit Sends in a Little Bill," 41-2. 

Ibid., "Down the Rabbit-Hole," 13. 

Ibid., "Advice From a Caterpillar," 69. 

Ibid., "Pig and Pepper," 84. 

Ibid., "Alice's Evidence," 182. 

Ibid., "The Queen's Croquet-Ground," 114-5. 

Ibid., "A Mad Tea-Party," 96. 

Ibid., 99-100. 

Ibid., "The Mock TurUe's Story," 134. 

Ibid., "Pig and Pepper," 84. 

Ibid., "A Mad Tea-Party," 109. 

Ibid., "Who Stole the Tarts?" 172. 

Parody of Jane Taylor's "The Star" ("Twinkle, Twinkle, litde 
star"), in Demurova's version was translated by O. L. 
Sedakova as "You twinkle, my owl." 

Ray Bradbury, "Because, Because, Because, Because of the 
Wonderful Things He Does," preface to Wonderful Wizard, 
Marvelous Land, by Raylyn Moore (Bowling Green, OH: 
Bowling Green University Popular Press, 1974), xiv. 

Same as "Al'ka", Russian familiar form for "Alice." 

HHHa M. fleMyposa, "O nepesoAe CKaaoK K3ppo;uia" b KHHre 
A/iHca B cxpaHC Hyaec h CKBCSb 3epKa;io /IbioHca K3ppo;i;ia, 
nepeBCflCHo Hhhoh M. JXeMypoBoii [Nina M. Demurova, "On 
Translation of Carroll's Tales" in Alice in Wonderland and 
Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll, translated by Nina 
M. Demurova] . For a version in English, see Nina M. De- 
murova. "Alice Speaks Russian: The Russian Translations of 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 2ind Through the Looking- 
Glass," Harvard Library Bulletin, n.s., 5, no. 4 (Winter 
1994-95): 25-27. 

SALLY FORTH Steve Alaniz and Francesco Marciuliano 







Ju/I Iciy Tre/no! 




State ^^ 



'^he fall meeting of our 

Society took place 

in California's lush 
Central Valley, in the fast-growing 
metropolis of Fresno, over 
the weekend of October 23rd. 
Angelica Carpenter put together 
a fantastic program; she and her 
colleagues were most generous 
and hospitable. 

The convention began 
Friday with a Maxine Schaeffer 
Memorial Reading at the BuUard 
TALENT School,* whosc Students 
were very well prepared, having 
done a production earlier this year 
(below). Due to the proximity to 
Halloween,^ the entire audience, 
including several teachers and the 
principal, were fully costumed as 
Alice characters. The fourth graders came prepared 
with a list of questions, some of which almost stumped 
the presenters ("How did Alice die?"). In return, they 
were treated to Andrew Sellon's rendition of the 
Humpty Dumpty scene, and each student received 
the Books of Wonder edition of Looking-Glass. 

Following a board meeting on Friday night 
at the hotel Piccadilly Inn-University, which had 
posted many signs for "The Louis Carrol Society," 
rapidly remedied, Angelica opened up her home to 
Carrollians, providing a splendid buffet. This might 
be as good a time as any to mention that the subtext 
of this particular meeting might be "The Wonderful 
Wizard of Wonderland," as the meeting was not only 
hosted by the current president of the International 
Wizard of Oz Club (Angelica),' but featured as 
speakers the past president (for eighteen years!) of 
that sister organization (Peter Hanff) and two authors 

* Teaching Able Learners Exceptional New Tech- 
niques. Bullard is a magnet school for the visual and 
performing arts, grades K-8. 

^ This is not to suggest that Halloween can be formally 
observed in public schools. 

* For the Sci-Fi channel's Taken, in 2003, produced by 
Steven Spielberg. 

(Linda Sunshine and Robert Sabuda) 
whose previous — and quite successful — 
books were about Oz, and included many 
guests who were equally at home in both 
Otherworlds. One of them was Hilda 
Bohem's son Les, an Emmy-winning 
miniseries writer,^ who is developing a "true 
to Carroll's text and intention" computer- 
aided movie of Wonderland, to star Dakota 
Fanning (b. 1994) or her younger, look- 
alike sister Elle (b. 1998), for DreamWorks. 
In proper Carrollian style, of course, 
Saturday's meeting was held in the dining 
hall, and our dining was in a meeting 

We walked in to the strains of some 
recorded music, primarily Donovan's 
renditions of "Jabberwocky" and "The 
Walrus and the Carpenter" from his 1971 
record HMS Donovan.- Before the meeting, 
the first of many feeding frenzies began as the campus 
shop (the Kennel Bookstore, named in honor of the 
Fresno State Bulldogs) had stocked Carrollian titles, 
as well as the works of our two featured speakers, both 
of whom were happy to sign copies. Alan did his best 
to call the meeting to order, and bade us welcome 
to California State University, Fresno. He first 
announced our upcoming meetings (see "Ravings," 
p. 34), beginning with this spring at the New York 
Public Library on April 30. 

We held an election, not quite as contested as 
the then looming Presidential one. August Imholtz 
of the Nominating Committee proposed the slate of 
all incumbents: 

President - Alan Tannenbaum 
Vice President - Mark Burstein 
Treasurer - Francine Abeles 
Secretary - Cindy Watter. 

A vote was held, and the slate passed. 

Our host, Angelica Carpenter, author of a 
delightful Carroll biography for children ages nine to 
fourteen,' next welcomed us to the Madden Library 
in general and the Arne Nixon Center for the Study 
of Children's Literature, of which she is the found- 

Andrew Sellon and the Bullard crew. 

ing curator, in particular. The Madden Library is a 
prestigious institution: its Dean of Library Services, 
Michael Gorman, is president elect of the American 
Library Association, and California voters recently 
approved a bond measure that included $91 million 
to move the library to larger quarters. Within it is 
housed the Nixon center. 

Arne Nixon (1927-1997), a beloved professor of 
children's literature, bequeathed his collection of 22 
thousand children's books, along with an endowment 
of $1 million, to found a children's literature research 
center, one of around ten in the United States and 
the only one west of the Mississippi.* The collection 
continues to grow, and the Center is known for mul- 
ticultural emphasis, as well as conferences and spe- 
cial events. Hilda Bohem sold her Carroll collection 
of two thousand volumes to them over the last few 
years (see her "Collecting Lewis Carroll," p. 30), and 
we were later treated to an exhibit of some of their 
rarer Carrollian holdings in display cases throughout 
the library. 

Perhaps again due to the proximity to Hallow- 
een, we were next given a terrible fright. For those 
of us still under the illusion that there is actual pub- 
lic education available to children in California, An- 
gelica's talk, "Accelerated Reader in Wonderland," 

OK, the Kerian Collection, recently moved from St. 
Paul to Minneapolis, literally sits on the west bank of 
the Mississippi, if you want to niggle. 

certainly woke us up. Here at the Cal State system, 
despite skimming from the top tier of high-school 
students (they must maintain a "B" average to be 
considered), nearly 60 percent of freshman students 
require a remedial course in reading upon entry! 
Our school libraries are ranked 50th of 50 states; our 
standards have been dumbed down and children sub- 
jected to scripted lessons, all to serve the one goal 
of raising standardized scores. The bugbear here is 
named Accelerated Reader (AR), a commercial prod- 
uct now entrenched in over half of all public schools 
in California, teaching children not how to read, but 
how to pass computerized tests. Reading books that 
don't have associated tests is discouraged. Children 
no longer know how to browse, nor use other library 
skills. There are fewer and fewer librarians — budgets 
now call for AR counselors instead. Multiple-choice 
tests do not encourage reading for pleasure, nor test 
the grasp of the material in any depth. One even gets 
equal points for reading abridgments. Here is a sam- 
ple test question: 

Alice couldn't get to the garden because: 

a. a large hole opened up between her and 
the garden 

b. she became stuck when the ceiling started 
to lower 

c. she was too short after shrinking to reach 
the door's key 

d. a ferocious Doberman was guarding it 


How fair are these AR tests? Angelica took the 
tests for novels on which she had written books — and 

We were deeply saddened and frightened by the 
substance of Angelica's talk. 

Peter E. Hanff, Deputy Director of the Bancroft 
Library at the University of California, Berkeley, next 
gave a learned talk accompanied by slides, "Full Lei- 
surely We Glide: Origins of Alice," delivered "on the 
occasion of the eightieth anniversary of the first large 
bibliographical treatment of the works of Lewis Car- 
roll."'* His focus was the earliest editions of Wonder- 
land: the withdrawn first edition of 1865; the second 
edition, newly typeset by Richard Clay; and the 1865 
first edition sheets, separately issued in New York by 
D. Appleton in 1866. He also discussed a few rarities: 
the unique Proof Copy of the 1865 Wonderland;* and 
two mixed-sheets copies, which contain the original 
London 1865 title page with a few gatherings of the 
second edition sheets to make them complete. 

He began with a personal history, his 35-year voy- 
age in the bibliographic world, wherein he has had 
the good fortune to examine fifteen of the twenty- 
three copies of the 1865 Wonderland listed in the Goo- 
dacre census, as well as the Proof Copy and the two 
mixed-sheets copies. 

Hanff went into the array of tools the modern 
bibliographic detective has to hand: the charts, dia- 
grams, photographs, and fold-samples historically 
available, and the juxtaposition of digital images the 
twenty-first century can provide. 

Hanff 's talk interwove two historical threads: the 
printing of the early editions, and the bibliographic 
records of them. Bibliography, he noted, was "inher- 
ently a conservative enterprise, relying on the ex- 
amination of multiple copies of seemingly identical 

The first thread was a discussion of the printing 
practices of that period: typesetting by hand, and 
stereo- and electro-typing. He went into the special 
folding and gathering techniques and case-binding, 
as well as differentiating the terms edition, impres- 
sion, state, and issue. He showed us the flaws in the 
first printing: Clarendon's failure to control the pres- 
sure and inking, which resulted in noticeable bleed- 
through; the use of a fouled case of type that mixed 
condensed and regular forms of letters and numer- 
als; typographic widows; and the general layout of il- 
lustrations in relation to text. Clay re-set the text and 
repositioned a number of illustrations for the second 

The second thread wove through the S. H. Wil- 
liams bibliography referred to above, and its revision 

Preserved in the Berol Collection, Fales Library, New 
York University 

Peter Hanff 

in 1931 (with Falconer Madan);'' the supplement 
in 1935 correcting "an egregi- ous error"; the 1962 
expansion (with Roger Lancelyn Green);'' and up- 
date in 1979 (with Denis Crutch);^ as well as Justin 
G. Schiller's handsomely printed and illustrated 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: An 1865 Printing Re- 
described,'^ referring all the while to Fredson Bowers' 
1949 Principles of Bibliographical Description, in which 
formal bibliography was further differentiated from 
handbooks, checklists, and catalogues. 

"The bibliographer," Hanff concluded, "of 
course, relies first and foremost on the physical evi- 
dence of the printed books themselves, but second- 
ary, circumstantial evidence should not be ignored. 
The two, weighed together, reveal a rather wonderful 
tale indeed, and certainly one that continues to sus- 
tain a full and leisurely glide." 

It was now time for a tribute to Hilda Bohem 
(properly pronounced as the first two syllables of "Bo- 
hemian"), an "occasion to celebrate the arrival of her 
collection, to grieve, to remember, and to celebrate 
our friend Hilda Bohem, rare book librarian, book- 
seller, longtime Carrollian." Several of her friends 
and family took the podium. August Imholtz spoke of 
her enthusiastic collaboration on Byron Sewell's bibli- 
ography (of the ordinary, often pirated, cheap Ameri- 
can editions) Much of a Muchness. A copy of Hilda and 
Byron's story, somewhat fictionalized by Byron and 
titled "Saint George and the Dragon," was included 
in our souvenir packet. She was also known for her 
work on the Lee 8c Shephard printings; articles in 
the Lewis Carroll Society (UK) periodical Jabberwocky; 
co-editing Jabberland, a collection of "Jabberwocky" 
derivatives, with Dayna McCausland;-' and giving well- 
received talks to our society in 1984, on early pirated 
editions (AL21:1), and in 1998, on tracking down an 
unusual Alice (KI. 59:5). 

Peter Hanff talked about their near-forty-year 
friendship, he having met her at the UCLA library 


Alice, the Brothers Tweedle, Humpty Dumpty, and the Dixie Chickens 

school where she was studying book conservation and 
preservation. Peter read from some of her "inimita- 
ble" emails, sharing thoughts on food, bibliography, 
her grandson, politics, dogs, restaurants, collecting, 
and movies. (Her husband wrote for silent movies, a 
somewhat oxymoronic calling.) 

Angelica Carpenter contributed some warm an- 
ecdotal reminiscences, and Hilda's niece, Gillian 
Garro, read a moving poem written for the occasion. 
We were left with a sweet tribute to Hilda in the form 
of a slide show of pictures of her, from childhood to 
old age, accompanied by music. 

We went to lunch in the Alumni meeting hall. 

After the gloom and doom of Accelerated Read- 
ers and our sadness over our loss of Hilda, it was time 
for a ray of sunshine, Linda Sunshine, to be exact. She 
enchanted us with the story of her brand-new book. 
All Things Alice (this was the official launch party for 
the book — the publishers had kindly moved up the 
date to accommodate this meeting). Linda, the au- 
thor of fifty-some books, among them All Things Oz, 
describes the event in her article on p. 38. 

Robert Sabuda, creator of the pop-up Wonder- 
land, a most extraordinary feat of paper engineering 
{KL 72:36),'" spoke on his own process and the way 
his books are produced. Over two million copies of 

his Oz and Wonderland have been sold, and have won 
numerous awards. 

A graduate of the Pratt Institute of Art and Ar- 
chitecture, but largely self-taught, Sabuda described 
himself approaching Carroll's work as being "very 
nervous about doing it justice." 

He works immediately in three dimensions, 
with only scissors, ruler, a pencil, glue, and a stack 
of white cards. The primary thing is that his paper 
sculptures pop up — and, more problematically, fold 
back down — correctly. A single image can take him 
a couple of weeks to finalize in paper. He then adds 
a drawing, other artistic touches, and colors in two 
dimensions. Robert described some of the little sur- 
prises that await the reader, such as a "kinda tough 
looking" Alice, and explained how very difficult it was 
to make her look as if she was drowning, not swim- 
ming. The volume took him about a year to make. 

Robert dazzled us with his boyish charm, telling 
tales of his childhood in rural Michigan where his 
grandfather was a carpenter, and his father was a wal- 
rus — no, a mason. He did his first popup (Oz) at the 
age of eight, but didn't make another for a decade. 
"For the boy I was, this is the type of book I would 
have liked." Since his recent Oz, his studio has been 
digital — -just in the drawing and the cut-out phases, 


not the hand-building of a maquette. For that, "there 
is a certain level of magic required." 

We saw how the cut blocks were created digitally. 
(When Wonderland won the New York Times Best Illus- 
trated Book of the Year award in 2003, it was not only 
the first pop-up book to win, but also the first that 
had been, in part, digitally created — something he 
told them after the fact.) 

Pop-up books are made by hand: No machine can 
fold and glue with the precision required. Specialized 
factories exist in South America, Southeast Asia, and 
Mexico. Most of his printing and die cutting is done 
in Colombia, and assembly is done in Ecuador. As 
Robert showed slides of the process, we learned how 
printed sheets are pressed against the die mold, 300 
sheets at a time, how every piece is unique, and we ac- 
quired a new vocabulary of glue points, digital die-lines, 
laser cuts, die molds, and sharp molds. 

The way the factories are structured, one per- 
son does the same thing for the entire run. Say she 
is a specialist in gluing Alice's head to her body. She 
might do it 250,000 times! Maybe a million! 

These are considered very good jobs in these 
countries. The factories are clean; work is constant. 
They are, in fact, "Disney certified," which means that 
inspectors may show up unannounced at any time to 
check working conditions. Each factory assembles ten 
to fifteen thousand books per week. 

After playing part of a video documentary on 
the process, Robert ended the session with questions 
from the audience. 

At the reception at the Madden library that eve- 
ning, a lovely buffet was laid out, and we had a chance 
to examine the Nixon Center and the Bohem collec- 
tion at our leisure, particularly the rare volumes on dis- 
play in glass cases in the library entry and solarium. 

Mingling with us were many young people, cos- 
tumed as Alice, Humpty Dumpty (in a cowboy hat) 
and the Tweedles. Also wandering around were a 
disconcerting number of identically dressed young 
cowgirls wearing white skirts with jagged edges. It 
turned out that they were all from the Bullard tal- 
ent School's January '04 production of Wonderland, 
and we were later treated to a most amusing sampler 
of that show. Set to a variety of musical styles, their re- 
view consisted of some ballads, the Tweedles and the 
Walrus and the Carpenter scenes, and a show-stop- 
ping number — in which it was revealed that Humpty 
Dumpty had jumped off his wall to become a country- 
western singer — the rockin' "I Was a Good Egg, But 
Then I Done Went Bad." (His backup singers were 
"The Dixie Chickens," the ones we had seen earlier in 
their cowgirl outfits.) 

Danny Kaye's Hello, Fresno, Goodbye seems an apt 
description of our too-short time among the good 
people of this fine city.* Praises are due to Angelica 
Carpenter and all who put this program together. 

Angelica Carpenter, Robert Sabuda 

' See 

2 Available on CD from BGO. 

^ Angelica Carpenter, Lewis Carroll: Through the Looking 

Glass (Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 2002). 
^ S. H. Williams, A Bibliography of the Writings of Lewis 

Carroll (London: The Bookman's Journal, 1924). The 

edition consisted of 79 copies. 
^ S. H. Williams and Falconer Madan, A Handbook of 

the Literature of the Rev. C. L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) 

(London: Milford, 1931). 
^ S. H. Williams, Falconer Madan, and Roger Lancelyn 

Green, The Lewis Carroll Handbook; Being a New Version 

of A Handbook of the Literature of the Rev. C. L. Dodgson 

(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962). 

^ S. H. Williams, Falconer Madan, Roger Lancelyn 
Green, and Denis Crutch, The Lewis Carroll Handbook, 
Being a New Version of A Handbook of the Literature of 
the Rev. C. L. Dodgson (Folkestone, Dawson, Archon 
Books, 1979). 

^ Justin G. Schiller and Selwyn H. Goodacre, Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland: An 1863 Printing Re-described 
and Newly Identified. . . (privately printed for The 
Jabberwock, 1990). 

^ Hilda Bohem and Dayna yicCdiWsXdind, Jabberland: A 
Whiffle Through the Tulgey Wood ofjabberwocky Imitations 
(Shelburne, Ontario, Canada: The Battered Silicon 
Dispatch Box [for the LCSCanada], 2002). 

'" Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland: A Pop- 
up Adaptation of Lewis Carroll's Original Tale, Robert 
Sabuda (New York: Little Simon, 2003). 

In his uproarious "Lobby Number," written by Sylvia 
Fine and performed in the film Up in Arms (1944), 
Kaye describes a gallimaufry of an imaginary movie 
called Hello, Fresno, Goodbye, in which nothing is left 
out. You can hear it on the CD Best of Danny Kaye from 
MCA, which also contains his rendition of "I'm Late" 
from the Disney Alice film. 



Marrv Turniss In UJondsrland 



When Harry Furniss illustrated Lewis 
Carroll's Sylvie and Bruno and Sylvie and 
Bruno Concluded, he felt that Carroll 
was a demanding author. His account of their work 
together, in Confessions of a Caricaturist, gave him a 
chance to get in assorted digs at Carroll for being so 
difficult.' Morton Cohen reported in his biography 
of Carroll that it seemed to him that Furniss was ex- 
aggerating a good deal, and that Carroll was patient 
and courteous in asking for changes and was ready 
to consider compromises.'^ But that was evidently not 
Furniss's impression. 

So it was probably with some glee that Furniss 
found himself with a chance to illustrate a pair of Car- 
roll-type stories and to be in control of the results. 
Even before he had finished Sylvie and Bruno Con- 
cluded, he parodied Looking-Glass with his illustration 
for "The Jerry-Buildingjabberwock," in the October 
8, 1892, Punch (see p. IG)."* But the requirements of 
that illustration directed him away from a focus on 
Carroll, as the poem's political satire of jerry-building 
called for a more urban, less Looking-Glass, landscape 
style, and the Jerry-Builder is an "ogre," a humanoid 
monster, rather than the dragon-like monster im- 
plied by Carroll's poem and drawn by Tenniel. But 
Furniss had a pair of intentionally Carrollian stories 
to work with in the new century, when he brought 
out Harry Furniss's Christmas Annual 1905, edited and 
completely illustrated by the artist.'' He billed it as a 
"first year," but even though the contributors and the 
art were distinguished, there were no sequels. 

The lead contribution was by one of Furniss's 
schoolmates from his Dublin boyhood, George Ber- 
nard Shaw, who wrote a one-act spoof, Passion, Poison, 
and Petrifaction; or, the Fatal Gazogene: A Tragedy.^ Shaw 
had written it at the request of actor Cyril Maude, to 
perform at a benefit for The Actors' Orphanage, July 
14, 1905. Maude's assignment to the authors of these 
playlets was for deliberately "dreadful melodramas."'' 
Starring with Maude was Irene Vanbrugh (offstage, 
Irene Barnes), who was the daughter of Reginald 
Henry Barnes, a college classmate of C. L. Dodgson, 
and had made her London stage debut as the Knave 
of Hearts and the WTiite Queen in the first revival of 
Alice in Wonderland (December 26, 1888), when she 
was about sixteen.^ 

Another well-known contributor was H. Rider 
Haggard (best known for She and King Solomon's 
Mines and other tales of African adventure), with a 
short ghost story, "A Wedding Gift." These and most 
of the other contents were intended for adult read- 
ers, but the annual also included two stories intended 
for children's enjoyment: "Johnny in Thunderland" 
(subtitled "A Fragment, Suggested by 'Alice in Won- 
derland'" according to Furniss's title illustration) by 
Captain Robert Marshall, and "The Land of the Won- 
derful Co., A Tale for Children" by Walter Kayess.^ 
Surprisingly, this pair of stories does not seem to have 
been noticed by Carrollians before. 

Furniss had previously illustrated a comic ghost 
story by Robert Marshall, The Haunted Major (1903) , a 
book that gave free play to Furniss's sense of the gro- 
tesque, but did not give him much scope for the deli- 
cate beauty he also enjoyed. Almost 20 years earlier, 
Shaw had reviewed an exhibition of Furniss drawings. 
He had commented, "The drawings are very clever 
and very funny, and a development toward beauty 
and wit is apparent in the later ones, but the artist's 
extraordinary powers are not yet ripe."^ In 1905, both 
the beauty and the wit were evident in Furniss's An- 
nual. Marshall had also written plays for Maude, and 
in 1907, he (in collaboration with Alfred Sutro) wrote 
another of the annual series of comedies for Maude 
to produce as fundraisers for the Actors' Orphanage, 
The Desperado Duke: or. The Culpable Countess. 

"Johnny in Thunderland" was a parody of army 
life in which Johnny, a colonel's son, dreams he meets 
a live drum, which brings him on a visit to Thunder- 
land. As the stereotypical soldier Tommy Atkins ex- 
plains to Johnny, the land is so called because troops 
live there, and with the noises of guns, rifles, drums, 
bugles, bands, commands, and "permiscuous lang- 
widge," it's always noisy.'" At the end of the story, the 
General, about to take an army examination for pro- 
motion to the rank of field-marshal, is infuriated by 
the idea of taking any more examinations at his age, 
and says he is going on strike. So he does, striking 
Johnny a stinging blow that wakes the boy, ending the 

The name of the author of the second Carrol- 
lian story, Walter Kayess, sounds like a pseudonym for 
a Walter K. S., although Kayess does exist as a family 


name. If the name was real, though, it seems odd that 
no other works by him are known, for the story seems 
too deft to be a one-off. And in getting contributions 
for what was intended as the first of a series, Furniss 
would probably have been seeking contributions 
from writers whose work he knew. 

Marshall and Kayess both imitated the basic Alice 
format: they sent a child on a dream-journey into a 
comical land of wonders, and interspersed comic 
poems inside the prose narratives. The songs pro- 
vided extra opportunities for Furniss's skill in draw- 
ing comic characters, as with Marshall's colonel and 
orderly (in "The Walrus and the Carpenter" style) 
walking in a sea of Army Forms; or his "Aged Major's 
Song" of old hunting triumphs; or with the yowling 
apparition of the ghost of Kayess's "The Boatswain's 
Cat." Kayess did not specify in the text that the ghost 
appeared as a disembodied head, but perhaps Furniss 
had in mind Tenniel's illustration of the Cheshire 
Cat's head floating over the distressed playing cards 
in Wonderland. 

Kayess, besides imitating the basic Alice format 
of a child who visits a land of wonders in a dream, 
included Alice herself as one of the characters Meg 
meets. Meg finds Alice walking, with a doll-sized 
White Queen in her arms, in a circus parade that 
also includes Furniss's old acquaintances Sylvie and 
Bruno — and, for good measure, Sherlock Holmes 
with his violin in his pocket. In the illustration. Hol- 
mes marches in the middle row, on the right, and 

Alice, in her chess-queenly crown and carrying the 
doll-like White Queen, marches next to him, with Syl- 
vie and Bruno just to the left of center. The circus 
turns into a jury trial, and Holmes gets off assorted 
deductions, having elected himself foreman of the 
jury. Perhaps significantly. Holmes had only recently 
returned from his apparent death at Reichenbach 
Falls in "The Adventure of the Empty House," which 
appeared in The Strand Magazine in October 1903, 
and in book form in early 1905." 

Bruno gets no dialogue in the story. Sylvie's few 
remarks sound as if Kayess was remembering that Car- 
roll was a mathematician — one of the defendants is a 
textbook writer charged with having caused much suf- 
fering to children by having "published an offensive 
and useless book, 'Riggle's Arithmetic'."''^ Sylvie tests 
the defendant's arithmetical competence by setting 
him "a rule-of-three sum," which he fails. (It's impos- 
sible: "If twenty men can move a hundred and forty 
carloads of bricks in six days, how many cartloads of 
men can move ten miles of brick in twenty days?")''' 
Kayess may also have been remembering that the 
Professor had got Sylvie and Bruno out the garden 
door by telling the Gardener that they were a Rule 
of Three. The puzzled Gardener then sang another 
of his "I thought I saw" verses, about thinking that he 
saw a Garden-Door, but found it was "a Double Rule 
of Three" ("'And all its mystery,' he said, / 'Is clear as 
day to me!'").'^ 


Another of the defendants at the trial is a spin- 
ster accused of "uttering false and malicious libels 
about certain books for children."''' She pleads "not 
guilty," but a letter (in her own handwriting — un- 
like the document in the Knave of Hearts' case) is 
turned in as evidence. Her letter advises her young 
niece, "I trust that you have w^f^r opened one of 
those obnoxious publications which, under the name 
of fairy-tales, are so common (and vulgar) nowadays. 
It was my misfortune last week to meet with a ridicu- 
lous, inconsequent, uninstructive piece of folly called 
'Alice in Wonderland.' Of the total want of all serious 
purpose in this witless production I need not speak."'^ 
The jury seems on the way to a guilty verdict when 
Meg wanders on. 

Taken in reverse, with Carrollian topsy-turvy, the 
defendant's scorn shows what Kayess thought of fairy- 
tales generally, and Alice in particular — and Furniss, 
by choosing to include the passage (and both the pair 
of A/iV^style stories) in his Annual, and to illustrate 
them with exuberant flair, evidently agreed. 

' Harry Furniss, Confessions of a Caricaturist (London: Bradley, 
Agnew, 1901), 2:104-12. 

^ Morton N. Cohen, Lewis Carroll: A Biography (New York: 
Knopf, 1985), 129. 

^ Illustration and poem reprinted m fabberland: A Whiffle 

Harry Furniss, "Thejerry-Buildingjabberwock," Punch, October 
8, 1892. 

Through the Tulgey Wood of "Jabberwocky" Imitations, edited by 
Hilda Bohem and Dayna McCausland (Shelbume, Ontario: 
The Battered Silicon Despatch Box, 2002), 165-167. 

'' Harry Furniss 's Christmas Annual 1 905 (London: Anthony 
Treherne, 1905). 

^ For a reprint, see George Bernard Shaw, Translations and 
Tomfooleries (New York: Brentano's, 1926). h gazogene — or 
gasogene, as it is spelled in the Sherlock Holmes stories — ^was 
a device with compressed carbon dioxide that could be 
squirted into a drink to carbonate it, maybe as much for the 
fun of the fancy modern gadget as for any advantage in fresh 

^ Cyril Maude, Lest I Forget (New York: J. H. Sears, 1928), 186. 

' Morton Cohen, I^ewis Carroll: Interviews and Recollections 
(Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1989), 186-188; Morton 
Cohen, The Letters of Lewis Carroll (New York: Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1979), 682, 723; Oxford Dictionary of National Biogra- 
phy, s.v. "Vanbrugh, Dame Irene," 
(accessed September 30, 2004). The first work cited gives 
Barnes' year of birth as 1873, the other two, 1872. 

** Christmas Annual, .39-52, 88-1 26. 

^ George Bernard Shaw, "Harry Furniss's Drawings," Th£ World 
(October 19, 1887) , reprinted in Bernard Shaw on the London 
Ari Scene, 1885-1950, edited by Stanley Weintraub (University 
Park, PA and London: Pennsylvania State University Press, 
1989), 184. 

'^ Christmas Annual, 40. 

' ' Arthur Conan Doyle, "The Adventure of the Empty House," 
TheStrand26, no. 154 (October 1903), 362-76, reprinted in 
Arthur Conan Doyle, The Return of Sherlock Holmes (London, 
George Newnes, 1905). The book was published on March 7, 
1905. (See Richard Lancelyn Green and John Michael Gib- 
son, A Bibliography of A. Conan Doyle (Oxford: Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1984). 

'^ Christmas Annual, 105. 

'^ Christmas Annual, 106. 

''^ Lewis Carroll, "A Musical Gardener" in Sylvie and Bruno 
(London: Macmillan, 1889), 168. The "Rule of Three" (ex- 
cept in Snark-hunting, where it's "What I tell you three times 
is true") is the formula for setting up the equation A/B = 
x/C, to solve word-problems of the kind that ask, "If it takes 
this much to do that much, how much of this will it take to 
do some other amount of that?" The Single Rule of Three 
applies when the units of measurement are the same on both 
sides of the equation, .so that the an.swer can be calculated 
directly. The Double Rule of Three is the name for problems 
in which the units of measurement are not the same, so that 
one must set up and calculate another proportion to con- 
vert, say, feet per second into miles per hour, or dollars per 
oimce into euros per gram, or the same-sounding but wildly 
mixed units of Sylvie's sum. The old Mother Goose rhyme 
claimed: "Multiplication is vexation. / Division is as bad. / 
The Rule of Three doth puzzle me / and practice drives me 
mad," and perhaps Kayess was of the same mind. 

'•'' Christmas Annual, 106. 

"* Christmas Annual, 107. 


rve Had To Ask You Twice^': AddinselFs Double Alice 



■^^C JfW^y chief interest in the recently released 
g \M \ audio compact disc Alice in Wonderland 
JL M.and Through the Looking-Glass was not that 

this 1947 Broadway cast recording probably contains 
the only commercially available access to Eva Le Galli- 
enne's performance as the White Queen: I was more 
curious about Richard Addinsell, the composer high- 
lighted in the release announcement.' Years ago I had 
chanced across an old vocal score in a Highgate book- 
shop for Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking- 
Glass as dramatized by Clemence Dane, with music by 
Richard Addinsell.'- Being interested in Dane through 
her connection to Noel Coward, and interested in 
Addinsell as the composer of Joyce Grenfell's music, ^ 
I made the book mine. Given my acquaintance with 
this West End score, I was surprised to see Addinsell 's 
name headlining the Broadway cast recording. In ev- 
erything I had read about Le Gallienne's several stage 
and television productions of Alice in Wonderland, the 
play she had devised with Florida Friebus, there had 
been no mention of the integral role music played in 
their adaptation. Nor had Addinsell's name loomed 
prominently. So I wondered how his music for the 
two dramatizations differed. Once I had procured the 
compact disc, I listened to the score of the Le Galli- 
enne and Addinsell collaboration while reading the 
score of the Dane and Addinsell collaboration. They 
were essentially identical. 

This identity would be less curious if there were 
common acknowledgment of it. After all, the recy- 
cling of stage music in West End or Broadway pro- 
ductions has never been unusual. Two years after 
Dane's play opened, for example, some of Addinsell's 
film music for Blithe Spirit was recycled as a ballet in 
Coward's stage revue Sigh No More^ However, the pro- 
ducers and performers are usually aware of the mu- 
sic's provenance. Even when they are not — as when 
Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart saved themselves 
some work by sneaking a hit song from their Broad- 
way show Dearest Enemy (1925) into the score for the 
West End musical Lido Lady (1926)'' — most borrow- 
ings are eventually documented. Yet at least one per- 
former in a 1944 revival of Dane's version seemed still 
to believe, fifty years later — after two Broadway reviv- 
als of the 1932 Le Gallienne version — that Addinsell, 
someone personally known to him, had composed 
the music specifically for the 1944 revival.*^ 

More tellingly, in Adrian Wright's liner notes for 
the new compact disc, which was produced with the 
help of the Richard S. Addinsell Will Trust, as in all 
other up-to-date surveys of the composer's work that 
I could find, the scores for Le Gallienne's and Dane's 
productions are treated, at least implicitly, as separate 
compositions." Since it is unlikely that in sixty-one 
years no one has noticed that the music is the same, 
I am tempted to conclude that the fact is a secret de 
Polichinelle, never spoken of only because everyone 
knows it already. 


Winifred Ashton was born in Greenwich (London) 
on February 21, 1888.^ She would take her pen name 
from St. Clement Danes, the Christopher Wren-de- 
signed church on an island in the Strand, not far 
from Dane's beloved Covent Garden. (This is the 
same church whose bells say "Oranges and lemons" 
in the famous nursery rhyme.) Hatters have long 
claimed Clement as their patron saint.^ 

In some respects "Winnie," as her friends called 
her, seems a benign, outsized Carroll character. Con- 
tinentally schooled and professionally trained in act- 
ing and art, she was statuesque, large-gestured, good- 
hearted, emotional, learned, and hilariously naive. 
For decades she hosted a salon in her Covent Gar- 
den flat, yet came to live part of the year in a trailer 
in a field. She massed her raven hair atop her head 
with tortoiseshell combs, which tumbled out when 
she was excited. Her generosity often burdened her 
friends with cumbersome gifts. In one case, a mossy 
Yule log of injurious heft left a trail of filth and lichen 
across Richard Addinsell's pale yellow carpeting as 
it was dragged to the hearth, where the heat of the 
Christmas fire sent gray woodlice scurrying into the 
composer's exquisite drawing room.'" 

In conversation, Dane's innocent vocabulary gen- 
erated unwitting double entendres that kept close 
friends, such as Noel Coward, in stitches. He not only 
based the character of Madame Arcati, the medium 
in Blithe Spirit, on Dane, but also offered her the part, 
which she declined." 

Yet for all her kindly naivete, Dane first made her 
name with novels and plays that harshly exposed the 
morbid reality behind genteel appearances. '^ And, 
despite her comic vagueness, Dane was strikingly 


accomplished in a variety of endeavors. She created 
operas and popular songs, pageants and paintings, 
biographies and nature crafts, literary criticism and 
sculpture, poems and screenplays, and even some 
still-anthologized genre tales (ghost, horror, suspense, 
science fiction, and fantasy) — all with assured profes- 
sionalism and most with commercial success.''' Hitch- 
cock's 1930 film Murder! v^diS, based on her novel Enter 
Sir John. Her hit play A Bill of Divorcement made Kath- 
erine Cornell a Broadway star and introduced Kather- 
ine Hepburn to the screen. Among other films, Dane 
scripted Greta Garbo's Anna Karenina. In 1953 she was 
made Commander of the British Empire. 

On the evening of March 27, 1965, after months 
of pain, Winnie Ashton rallied from her sickbed suf- 
ficiently to tie a purple nylon scarf around her head 
and to dab on some lipstick. She called for her old 
friends, Dick Addinsell and designer Victor Stiebel, to 
come to her home at 1 Draycott Place in Chelsea for a 
kind of farewell party. It lasted an hour. The following 
day she died. "She was certainly," wrote Coward in his 
diary on learning the news, "a gallant old girl."''' 


Born in London in 1899, Eva was the daughter of 
English writer Richard Le Gallienne and Danish 
journalist Julie Norregaard, who reared her daugh- 
ter alone after a marital separation. By the time she 
was the age of Alice visiting Wonderland, Eva already 
knew London, Paris, and Copenhagen, and was flu- 
ent in their national languages. Eva's mother took 
her to New York in 1915 so that the sixteen-year-old 
could further pursue her passion for acting. Within 
five years Eva Le Gallienne was triumphing in leading 
Broadway roles. By the time she 
became a United States citizen, 
in 1926, she had produced and 
directed, as well as performed 
in, plays in Paris and New York, 
and now decided to dedicate 
herself to nonprofit artistic 

Le Gallienne was boyishly 
slim, with an elegant long neck 
and large blue eyes in a clean- 
edged face capable of being 
inhabited by any character of 
either sex. She was known for 
disappearing into character 
parts, for the musicality of her 
voice, and for her compel- 
ling stage presence. Over the 
decades she trained actors, 
formed companies (such as 
the Civic Repertory Theatre, 
which she ran for ten years), 
produced and directed plays Eva Le Gallienne 

in New York and on tour, translated Ibsen and Hans 
Christian Andersen, wrote autobiographies and bi- 
ographies, and took on a broad range of stage roles, 
including Hamlet. Her film and television work was 
rare but remarkable, and she performed well into her 

Le Gallienne's translation and championing of 
Ibsen's dramas won her the Norwegian Grand Cross. 
She also received the Pulitzer Prize, an Emmy award, a 
special Tony award, and a National Medal of Arts. For 
one of her handful of film appearances, as Grandma 
Pearl in Resurrection (1980) , she was nominated for an 
Academy award. On June 3, 1991, Le Gallienne died 
of a heart attack in Weston, Connecticut, where she 
had lived most of her life. She was ninety-two. ^^ 


Richard Stewart Addinsell was born at 31 Woburn 
Square, London, in 1904. He was home-schooled 
until he left to study law at Oxford. After a year and a 
half, he changed to the Royal College of Music, where 
he completed only two terms. By age twenty-two he 
was contributing music to London shows, such as the 
eminent Chariot's Revue. He composed the score for 
Clemence Dane's Adam's Opera in 1928. During the 
next few years he visited Berlin, Vienna, and other 
centers of European music and theater, studying here 
and there but never finishing formal training. His 
reputation for theater music grew both in England 
and in America, though a 1933 Hollywood project 
fizzled out."* 

Back in England, he entered film composing 
with The Amateur Gentleman (1936), which had a 
screenplay by Clemence Dane. Today Addinsell is 
considered one of the great mas- 
ters of British cinema music. 
His scores enriched such stel- 
lar films as Blithe Spirit, A Tale of 
Two Cities, Gaslight, Scrooge (with 
Alastair Sim), The Prince and the 
Showgirl, Life at the Top, Waltz of 
the Toreadors, and Goodbye, Mr. 
Chips. His greatest commercial 
success, however, was the Rach- 
maninov-style piano showpiece 
he wrote for the minor film Dan- 
i^erous Moonlight (1941). Known 
as "The Warsaw Concerto," it 
was popularized on both sides 
of the Atlantic through record- 
ings, radio broadcasts, and sheet 

In 1942 he met and be- 
friended entertainer Joyce 
Grenfell, who would later forge 
her own professional connec- 
tion to Alice in Wonderland by 


voicing the Ugly Duchess and Dormouse in the 1950 
film created by American puppeteer Lou Bunin. Add- 
insell supplied music for her wartime shows cheering 
the troops, while also composing for BBC broadcasts 
and continuing his stage and film work. In the 1950s 
he contributed to revues and composed settings for 
Grenfell's unique theatrical evenings of songs and 
comic monologues, which she performed in the West 
End and on Broadway (even sharing the bill with Elvis 
on The Ed Sullivan Shoiv) , often with her dear friend 
Dick Addinsell at the piano. 

Critics admired Addinsell 's versatility and facility 
in creating music suited to whatever era or style was 
appropriate. His full orchestral approach, achieved 
with the assistance of arrangers, communicated imme- 
diately to the general listener, while his compositional 
wit and invention were appreciated by trained ears. 

A narrow-shouldered man with a long, gentle, 
and doleful face, Addinsell was a quiet introvert but 
an animated accompanist for Grenfell's live perfor- 
mances. Though wry, skeptical, and undemonstrative, 
he was deeply moved by the love of his close friends, 
to whom he was uncommonly devoted and giving. 

Declining health forced his retirement in 1965. 
Following the death of his closest friend, Victor 
Stiebel, in 1976, the frail composer became even more 
withdrawn. "This was sad and bewildering for those of 
us who were fond of him," wrote Grenfell in a mem- 
oir, "and it seemed as if the man we knew as an attrac- 
tive, strong, very idiosyncratic individual (complicated 
is perhaps a simpler way of putting it) more aware of 
the nuances of relationships and more talented than 
most other people, was no longer present."'^ 

Though they spoke on the phone, Addinsell did 
not allow Grenfell to visit him in his flat at 1 Carlisle 
Mansions on Cheyne Walk in Chelsea: "I don't want 
you to see me like this." Before the end, however, 
he allowed her to come. She found him thin and al- 
tered, but no longer withdrawn. His "medieval face" 
was tranquil and his "long-boned El Greco hands" 
lying motionless on the bedclothes were still beauti- 
ful. They spoke of their affection for each other and 
how they treasured the good times they had enjoyed. 
After the seventy-three-year-old Addinsell's death 
from bronchopneumonia and osteoporosis on No- 
vember 14, 1977, Grenfell received, by his bequest, 
the bronze cast (which had once belonged to Clem- 
ence Dane) of his right hand.'*^ 


1932: Eva Le Gallienne and designer Florida Friebus 
constructed the play Alice in Wonderland for the Civic 
Repertory Theatre, insisting on sets and costumes 
rigorously faithful to Tenniel's illustrations. They re- 
stricted the dialogue to Carroll's words and limited 
the dream colors to "those used in cards and chess 

games: Red, Black, White, Yellow and Green."'^ The 
play begins with Alice leaving her armchair and kitten 
to pass through the looking-glass. In the looking-glass 
house she reads "Jabberwocky" and the \Miite Rabbit 
scurries past. The first act then follows the Wonderland 
narrative, ending in the trial scene, which Alice flees. 
She finds herself in the looking-glass world for the 
second act, which ends with her waking in the arm- 

Richard Addinsell was commissioned to compose 
incidental music and song settings. 

The production opened December 12, 1932, at 
the Civic Repertory and moved to the New Amster- 
dam Theatre on January 30, 1933. Josephine Hutchin- 
son as Alice led a cast that included Friebus (Cheshire 
Cat, Beetle) and Le Gallienne (White Queen), as well 
as Howard da Silva, Burgess Meredith, and future 
writer May Sarton, who voiced the Gnat.-" The show 
ran 127 performances. 

1943: Clemence Dane's adaptation of the AZic^ books 
begins with Alice growing sleepy on the bank. Lewis 
Carroll is telling the story. The naturalness with which 
Addinsell's music suits the two scripts' divergent 
framing devices suggests the possibilit)' that Dane de- 
signed her script with the music as a given. Ivor No- 
vello, an old friend of Dane's, co-produced the play 
with Tom Arnold at the Scala Theatre in London. 
It opened on December 14 as a holiday show in the 
tradition of Christmas pantomimes. Thousands of 
children who had been evacuated to the countiyside 
were brought into the Blitz-ravaged capital to see the 
performance. A frequent musical-comedy performer 
in Novello's company, Roma Beaumont, was perhaps 
the first Beaumont to play Alice professionally.-^' Sybil 
Thorndike doubled as the Queen of Hearts and the 
WTiite Queen. Carol Dodgson (!) was the Cook.-- 

1944: Novello revived the Dane show for the next 
pantomime season, and we have a vivid backstage 
glimpse of the production thanks to Graham Payn's 
memoir. My Life with Noel Coward. Though Novello 
confided to him that it was a "terrible" show and that 
he was only doing it for Dane's sake, Payn thought the 
script "wonderful," his Mock Turtle costume "splen- 
did," and the songs by Addinsell "even better." He was 
thrilled to sing "Beautiful Soup" and to assume the 
extra roles of Lewis Carroll and Tweedledum. Sybil 
Thorndike and Margaret Rutherford alternated as 
the Queen of Hearts. The unintended slapstick of 
frequent mechanical problems — wire-flown actors 
knocking over scenery and trolley-mounted set pieces 
rolling uncontrollably down the steeply raked stage 
toward the footlights, "often dragging an unwilling 
member of the cast with them" — were treated non- 
chalantly by an insouciant Peggy Cummins as Alice. 


This seemingly jinxed production fulfilled its five- 
week booking but did not tour.-^^ 

1946: George More O'Ferrall adapted and directed 
Dane's script, with Addinsell's music, for a forty-min- 
ute black-and-white British television broadcast sim- 
ply titled Alice. Vivian Pickles played the lead.^"* 

1947: Le Gallienne revived her 1932 show, this time 
as "presented by" the American Repertory Theatre. 
It ran from April 5 to May 24 at the International 
Theatre in New York, and from May 28 to June 28 
at the Majestic Theatre. Understudied by a young 
Julie Harris, Brooklyn-born dancer Bambi Linn (nee 
Linnemeier), just turning twenty-one, played Alice. 
She had been in the original company of Oklahoma in 
1943 and had created the role of Louise in Carouselin 
1945, winning a Theatre World Award. Again Le Gal- 
lienne played the White Queen. The cast included 
William Windom (White Rabbit) and Eli Wallach 
(Duck, Knave of Hearts). The April 18 issue of Life 
features the play as its cover story; the cover shows 
Linn as Alice speaking to Humpty Dumpty (Henry 
Jones). ''^'' RCA Victor recorded an abridged audio 
version of this production, with narration by Eva Le 
Gallienne, on six 78-rpm twelve-inch records for its 
Double Features series. This 
recording, titled Alice in Won- 
derland and Through the Looking- 
Glass, is the source of the new 
compact disc.'^'' 

1948: There may have been 
other pantomime-season reviv- 
als since 1944, but Novello's re- 
vival of the Dane and Addinsell 
play at the Scala Theatre in 1948 
seems to have been a significant 
remounting. The script was re- 
published with a revised title, 
and some biographers of Dane 
and Addinsell list it separately.-^" 

1955: A television adaptation of 
the Le Gallienne and Friebus 
script, with Addinsell's music, 
was broadcast on United States 
television. Le Gallienne played 
the White Queen to Gillian 
Barber's Alice in a cast that in- 
cluded Elsa Lanchester, J. Pat 
O'Malley (who had provided a 
number of voices for Disney's 
Alice in Wonderland) , and pup- 
peteer Burr Tillstrom. The now 
renowned Dick Smith ( The Exor- 
cist, The Godfather, Altered Slates) , 

NBC's first makeup artist, presumably transformed 
the actors into Tenniel-based characters. No record- 
ing of this broadcast seems to be in current release. ^^ 

1982: Le Gallienne again staged Alice in Wonderland, 
this time with Addinsell's music adapted by Jonathan 
Tunick. Previews began on December 8 for an open- 
ing on December 23 at the Virginia Theatre in New 
York. This production, with Kate Burton as Alice and 
Le Gallienne as the White Queen, ran only until Jan- 
uary 9, 1983. The New York Times called it "a disastrous 
stage production. "'-^'^ The cast included Mary Stuart 
Masterson and Mary Louise Wilson (Red Queen). 
Bambi Linn, the Alice of the 1947 production, di- 
rected the movement. An archival audiovisual record- 
ing of the show — for "qualified researchers" — is held 
in The New York Public Library for the Performing 
Arts. However, no commercial release can be ex- 

1983: PBS's Great Performances broadcast Alice in Won- 
derland using the Le Gallienne and Friebus script as 
a play-within-a-play. Kate Burton played a nervous 
Alice understudy who is told she must go on for the 
lead. Her fantasies combine the personalities of the 
Carroll characters with the personalities of her fel- 
low actors, portrayed 
by an all-star cast.'^' 
Richard Burton played 
the White Knight and 
Maureen Stapleton the 
White Queen. Jona- 
than Tunick conducted 
Addinsell's score. This 
performance is com- 
mercially available on 
video and DVD.^2 


Since the twelve-inch 
78-rpm record had a 
limit of about five min- 
utes a side, the twelve 
sides of the original 
RCA Victor recording 
of Le Gallienne's 1947 
Alice in Wonderland 
could contain just over 
fifty-six minutes of the 
two-act Broadway per- 
formance. The show 
was trimmed even 
further to make time 
for Eva Le Gallienne's 
narration. Though this 
allowed the recording 

Josephine Hutchinson as Alice and Eva Le Gallienne as the Wfiite 
Queen. From the Mid-Wcek Pictorial, February 18, 1933. 


to stand on its own, telling a coherent story for young 
listeners, today's Carrollian may regret the loss of 
every minute of delicious exchanges from the play. 

Apart from adroit abridgment, the only changes 
to the stage dialogue are occasional radio tricks to 
help listeners picture the action, such as having char- 
acters, when there are more than two in a scene, ad- 
dress one another by name: "What ^5 a Caucus-race, 
Mr. Dodo?" The narration is straightforward, though 
perhaps hastily written, with the word "suddenly" 
somewhat overused. Le Gallienne delivers it in an 
evocative yet matter-of-fact tone. There is none of the 
clownish exaggeration that some misguided enter- 
tainers inflict on children. 

Only production photographs, such as the selec- 
tion in the compact disc liner, allow the listener to 
imagine the important role of the play's visual design. 
Le Gallienne's effort to be faithful to Tenniel's draw- 
ings involved many full-head black-and-white masks 
as well as cross-hatched costumes and backdrops, 
creating an effect closer to the theatrical fashions of 
her time than she may have realized. After all, Tenn- 
iel did not present a full-color Alice in a black, white, 
yellow, red, and green world inhabited by plaster-stiff 
Mardi Gras grotesques. This is theatrical expression- 
ism. Friebus's original 1932 designs were conceived in 
the wake of such Broadway expressionist successes as 
Elmer Rice's The Adding Machine in 1923 and George 
Kaufman and Marc Connelly's Beggar on Horseback in 
1924. True to Ten- 

niel or not, however, 
the astringency of 
the Le Gallienne and 
Friebus approach — 
the blacked-out stage 
with predominantly 
white backdrops and 
props and characters 
appearing and disap- 
pearing, or flying in 
and out'^'' — is appro- 
priately dreamlike 
and starkly cerebral 
in a way that empha- 
sizes dialogue over 

Though having 
Alice enter Wonder- 
land via the look- 
ing-glass is an effi- 
cient solution to the 
problem of combin- 
ing both adventures 
in one narrative, it 
means the loss of the 
rabbit-hole. Gone too 
are the summer river- 

Mice in 


.eu/ib' tarru 

Vocal score far Richard Addinsell, Alice in Wonderland and 
Through the Looking-Glass, adapted by Clemence Dane (1951). 

bank and Alice's sister's unenticing book. Because of 
the White Queen scene, Alice is always seven and a 
\\2i\i exactly, which doesn't seem right. 

The cast's largely undisguised American accents 
do not jibe with a world of tea-parties and duchesses. 
Attempts to indicate humor or character with funny 
voices or eccentric line readings are blessedly few. 
Margaret Webster's Red Queen and Le Gallienne's 
White Queen seem models of how playing the char- 
acters absolutely straight, without fuss or mannerism, 
is irresistibly funny. 

In 1947 the critics thought Bambi Linn looked 
and sounded exactly right as Alice. However, the 
singsong lilt that may have conveyed a polite Victo- 
rian child when projected without amplification in a 
theater, especially within the cultural conventions of 
the 1940s, can seem keen and plangent in a record- 
ing studio. This cut-down version of the show, which 
rushes Alice from one key confrontation to the next, 
makes Linn seem unvarying and strident. The listener 
cannot enjoy her comic timing, so praised by review- 
ers, or the expressive variety she must have brought 
to a full evening's program. 

Yet it was for the music that this compact disc was 
released in Richard Addinsell's centenary year. As the 
orchestra seems not to have been recorded with the 
care that would have been given to concert music for 
adults, the sound can be flat and thin. But the scor- 
ing is ingenious. The music melts seamlessly into the 
action when it shovild, enhancing 
HHHflP^ one's sense of a flood of tears, 

or of soup being stirred, or of a 
queen snoring. The song settings 
are varied and concise. The fram- 
ing vocal piece, "The Boat Song" 
("A boat beneath a sunny sky"), 
has the right blend of parlor-song 
romanticism and Carrollian wist- 
fulness. When Addinsell writes 
a raucous lullaby for the kitchen 
scene, the Cook and Duchess and 
baby create the cacophony of a 
crowd. The showstopper "Beauti- 
ful Soup" incorporates the self- 
dramatizing and erratic personal- 
ity exhibited in the Mock Turtle's 
previous dialogue. When Addin- 
sell writes an alternate-universe 
Brahms lullaby for the tone-deaf 
Red Queen to screech, he makes 
sure the listener knows she is off- 

Competent to a fault, he 
sometimes adapts his music so 
gracefully to the words that one 
may have to listen hard to realize 
that a nonsense song is nonsense. 


Hence, the joke may be lost. The White Knight's 
tune is so poignant, for example, that it justifies the 
old gentleman's hope of eliciting tears. The toast to 
Queen Alice seems like a rousing old drinking song 
of folk origins, in which "with thirty times three" is no 
zanier than "with a derry down down." 

In all, the score is brisk and charming, as English 
as a church fete, sometimes mischievous, sometimes 
touching, and never jarring. Though it is not Victo- 
rian, it never reminds us that it is not. It well deserves 
to have lived its parallel theatrical lives on both sides 
of the Atlantic. 

^ Eva Le Gallienne and Florida Friebus, Alice in Wonderland and 
Through the Looking-Glass, with music by Richard Addinsell, 
compact disc, Must C>lose Saturday Records MCSR 3012. The 
disc was restored and re-mastered from a mint copy of the 
original 78s, and can be ordered from www.must<lose-satur- 

'^ Richard Addinsell, Alice in Wonderland and Through the Look- 
ing-Glass, adapted by Clemence Dane, vocal score (Keith 
Prowse, 1951). 

^ British actress and comedienne, 1910-1979 

■* Graham Payn and Sheridan Morley, The Noel Coward Diaries 
(Boston: Little, Brown, 1982), 32 n. 2. 

^ Richard Rodgers, Musical Stages: An Autobiography (New 
York: Random House, 197.5; Cambridge, MA: De Capo Press, 
2002), 90. 

^ Graham Payn, My Life With Noel Coiuard (New York: Applause, 
1994), 27. 

' See, for example, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, s.v. 
"Addinsell, Richard Stewart" (by Andrew Lamb), www.ox- (accessed November 16, 2004). 

" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, s.v. "Ashton, Winifred" 
(by Leonard R. N. Ashley). 

^ Bonnie Blackburn and Leofranc Holford-Strevens, Oxford 
Companion to the Year (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 
1999), 472. 
'** Joyce Grenfell, In Pleasant Places (London: Macmillan, 1979; 

London: Futura Publications, 1980, rpt. 1991), .30. 
'' Philip Hoare, Noel Coward: A Biography (New York: Simon and 

Schuster, 1995), .304-5, .320. 
''^ See her novels Regiment of Women (1917) and Legend (1919). 
^^ See her painted portrait and bronze bust of Coward — as well 

as images of Dane herself — at 
'■^ Payn and Morley, Coward Diaries, 596. The section draws on 
several other sources: Graham Payn with Barry Day, My Life 
With Noel Coward (New York: Applause, 1994); Internet Movie 
Database, s.v. "Dane, Clemence," (accessed 
October 2004); Fantastic Fiction, s.v. "Dane, Clemence," w\vw. (accessed October 2004). 
'-' Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, s.v. "Le Gallienne, Eva" 
(by Helen Sheehy). See also, Internet Movie Database, s.v. "Le 
Gallienne, Eva"; Internet Broadway Database, s.v. "Le Gallienne, 
Eva," (accessed October 2004). 

'^ Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, s.v. "Addinsell, Richard 
Stewart" (by Andrew Lamb) . 

" Grenfell, In Pleasant Places, 254-5. 

'^ This section drew on the sources previously mentioned. 

'^ Eva Le Gallienne, foreword to Eva Le Gallienne and Florida 
Friebus, Alice in Wonderland: A Play in Two Acts ["Revised and 
Rewritten"], by Lewis Carroll, presented by Rita Hassan and 
the American Repertory Theatre, April, 1947 (New York: 
Samuel French, 1960). The foreword is dated 1948. 

■^^ Internet Broadway Database, s.v. "Le Gallienne, Eva"; Le Gal- 
lienne, Alice in Wonderland. 

^' London-born Kathryn Beaumont (19.38- ), evidently no rela- 
tion to Roma (email message from Kathryn Beaumont, De- 
cember 6, 2004), provided the voice of Alice in Walt Disney's 
1951 Alice in Wonderland as well as movement reference for 
the animators. She repeated the role for the Christmas Eve 
broadcast of Lux Radio Theatre the same year. Throughout 
the years, she has continued to voice Alice in various Disney 
projects, such as video games and theme parks. 

^^ Addinsell, Alice in Wonderland. 

^^ Payn, My Life with Noel Coward, 27-8. 

^^ Internet Movie Database, s.v. "Dane, Clemence." 

2^ Life (April 18, 1947), 97-100. The cover story consists of a 
four-page photo spread from the production with a short 
introduction and summary captions. 

^^ Library of Congress Online Catalog,; Adrian 
Wright, liner notes in Gallienne and Friebus, Alice in Wonder- 
land, compact disc; Internet Broadway Database, s.v. "Le Gal- 
lienne, Eva." 

"^^ Clemence Dane, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through 
the Looking-Glass, by Lewis Carroll, with music by Richard 
Addinsell, presented at the Scala Theatre, London, 1948 
(London: Samuel French, 1948). 

"^^ Internet Movie Database, s.v. "Le Gallienne, Eva." For photo- 
graphic examples of Smith's makeup techniques for other 
literal^ classics during his NBC years, see Cinefex, no. 62 
(June 1995):62-,3. 

^ John J. O'Connor, review of Alice in Wonderland, directed for 
television by Kirk Browning, October 3, 1983, www.alice-in- 

^^ Internet Broadway Database, s.v. "Le Gallienne, Eva"; Eva Le 
Gallienne and Florida Friebus, Alice in Wonderland, entire 
production conceived and directed by Miss Le Gallienne, 
video directed by Betty L. Corwin, The New York Public 
Library for the Performing Arts, NCOV 237 (New York: 
Theatre on Film and Tape Archive, 1983), 2 tapes. 

'^' O'Connor, review of Alice in Wonderland; Internet Movie Data- 
base, s.v. "Le Gallienne, Eva." 

^'^ Internet Movie Database, s.v. "Alice in Wonderland"; Eva Le 
Gallienne and Florida Friebus, Alice in Wonderland, with 
music by Richard Addinsell (Broadway Theatre Archive, 
1983), video and DVD. 

•^^ Based on the production diagrams and reference photos in 
Gallienne and Friebus, Alice in Wonderland. 


Four More Contemporary Reviews of 
Sylvie and Bruno and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded 


Just when we thought the well was running dry,' 
we have found two more contemporary reviews 
of Sylvie and Bruno and two of Sylvie and Bruno 
Concluded. The review of Sylvie and Bruno from Notes 
and Queries in December 1889 is quite short, and 
states that it and Wonderland have much in common 
(a point which most readers today seem to contest). 
A Spectator review, reprinted in the New York Times, is 
perhaps unique in never mentioning the book by 
name as well as in commenting on the Index, which 
comes in for particular derision. Sylvie and Bruno has 
left this writer mouth agape in horror! The Saturday 
Review's notice of Sylvie and Bruno Concluded shows 
a fondness for the Professor, and admires the skill 
with which Carroll weaves in and out of the fairy and 
earthly scenes. Finally, we also have a short over-the- 
top rave for the second book from the New York Times, 
which preceded by a week a longer, equally gushing 
review in that paper {KL 63:6). 

NOTES AND QUERIES: 7th Series, 8, 
December 21, 1889 

Among Christmas books the new eccentricity of 
Lewis Carroll will occupy a foremost place, thanks, in 
part, to the forty-six brilliant illustrations of Mr. Harry 
Furniss, of which the author 
speaks in terms of justified 
eulogy. Though a different 
framework is adopted, the 
new story has much in com- 
mon with the old. With its 
human teaching it is im- 
possible not to sympathize. 
In a book of this class, how- 
ever, we scarcely care for 
the didactic preface. 

New York Times, February 
16, 1890 (reprinted from 
The Spectator) . 

Suppose Mr. Lewis Carroll 
did index "Alice in Won- 
derland"? — Is it ill-natured 
to wonder whether Mr. 
Lewis Carroll, the beloved 
of all the children, gentlest 

magician who has led our sober selves into delightful 
lands of nonsense where all was topsy-turvy, has had 
writer's cramp? and whether it has gone to his head? 
It is perhaps not good that such a question should be 
asked under the immediate pressure of a great disap- 
pointment; a certain ferocity steals into the note of 
interrogation — a fierce suggestion is in the inquiry. 
Bitterly disappointed indeed are we; for here now is 
a book with that name, suggestive of endless fun and 
delightful bewilderment, upon the title-page. With 
hopes of forgetting influenza and Christmas bills, 
and every other evil thing, we seize the happy volume, 
but only to fall back with a blank countenance and 
open mouth of horror. Alas! here is no dear land of 
topsy-turvy, no sedate little maiden unsurprised, no 
delightfully logical Duchess or inconsequent hatter 
to make our hearts light. 

Literature is going sadly wrong in these strange 
times, whether because of universal overwork or 
writer's cramp, or influenza, or what, we cannot 
tell. I have heard a dreadful story to the effect that 
Mr. Lewis Carroll has been for ten years collecting 
all the funny things he could find; all the jokes, the 
humorous conversations, the nonsense, which in 
grave collegiate circles, among the wise of the earth, 
came under his notice. It 
is a dreadful thing to say 
of such a well-known and 
delightful writer. But, sad- 
der still, I now believe it is 
true. Nothing, not even a 
surgical operation, could 
have convinced me of such 
a slanderous statement 
yesterday. But now, alas! I 
believe it. He has not only 
been collecting jokes for 
ten years, but he has made 
an index of them. He has 
taken the pains to point 
out that they are jokes, and 
the pages on which we shall 
find them. 


Oh, what a fearful falling off is here! It was once 
a wonderful thing to believe that Alice had her ori- 
gin in Oxford. She made us think better of the wit 
in the common rooms and the talk at the high tables. 
But Alice has gone, to return no more; and the com- 
mon room is painfully evident, and those elaborately 
humorous concoctions that amuse the learned. Alas 
for Wonderland! it has closed its delightful gates, and 
even the paths that led to them are obliterated. Mr. 
Lewis Carroll, like the inimitable Alice, is vanished 
and gone. We know the gentleman's real name very 
well. He is a Fellow of his college, and has a pretty 
wit. The Dons all laugh whenever he opens his mouth. 
When he asks for the mustard the mirth is boundless. 
And, alas, our old friend has fallen to the level of his 
fate. ~ The Spectator. 

NEW YORK times: February 3, 1894 
"Books of the Present Week: Preliminary Notes on the 
More Interesting and Important Ones" 
Macmillan &: Co. have ready Lewis Carroll's "Sylvie 
and Bruno, Concluded" with forty-six illustrations 
by Harry Furniss. It is a little treasury of delicate wit, 
gentle satire, and charming fantasy, and worthy of 
careful examination. There are in this volume, as in 
the preceding ones devoted by Mr. Carroll to his elfs, 
nonsense rhymes that are in the abstract absurd, but 
in their environment absolutely natural, plays upon 
words, extraordinary dialogues the effect of which 
may not be aptly enough described in the observation 
that they are very delicately humorous and dazzling 
and expressions of common sense. 

SATURDAY REVIEW: January 27, 1894 
"New Books and Reprints" 

FROM the very characteristic preface to Mr. Lewis Car- 
roll's Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (Macmillan & Co.), it 
appears that only one person, and that a little child — 
for Mr. Carroll takes no count of reviewers — was acute 
enough to perceive that the first Sylvie and Bruno 
was unfinished, and its apparent conclusion veiled 
in some sort the promise of a sequel. This discerning 
child wrote — "We were so glad, when we came to the 
end of the book, to find that there was no ending-up, 
for that shows us that you are going to write a sequel." 
We can readily imagine the delight of Mr. Carroll's 
young correspondent in the sequel, though strictly 
speaking this second volume is no sequel at all. Both 
volumes are but parts of one romance, since they 

are alike based on the same psychical conception 
that inspires all that is absolutely delightful in the 
work — the scenes, namely, in which the charming 
fairy-children, Sylvie and Bruno, appear, whether as 
fairies or as children. The existence of fairies being 
assumed, we have a kind of rapprochement of con- 
ditions between the "historian," as Mr. Carroll calls 
the narrator of the story, and the two fairy-children. 
Thus, the romance is set forth in definite scenes, al- 
though through all there runs a story with a set plan 
or plot with its human action, and the fairy elements 
and the human are mutual influences and re-act 
upon each other. Just as when "Pippa passes"-^ some 
virtuous influence goes from her, so do Bruno and 
Sylvie affect the various human beings with whom 
they are associated. It is through this dualism of 
trance conditions, in human and fairy alike, that the 
confines of the earthly and the fairy world appear 
indeterminable in the story, and the conception is 
carried out with remarkable skill in several scenes. 
It must be owned that the trance state of the "his- 
torian," in which alone fairies are visible to him, is 
sometimes very easily induced. Thus a reverie over 
a glowing fire evokes the diverting scenes of the 
Professor's lecture, the wonderful Banquet, the ex- 
quisite song of the Pig-Tale and other drolleries, that 
are as dream-like in humor and fantasy as anything 
in Alice's Adventures. The songs, again, recall the 
spirit of Mr. Carroll's first story, and the Professor is 
a creation of the first order. He is so delightful that 
we should be sorry to think we have done with him. 
But the "story" is finished, though Sylvie and Bruno 
may yet reappear, and finishes happily, as all fairy 
tales should, despite the apparent catastrophe sug- 
gested when we are little more than half through the 
volume. We must forgive the apprehensions raised 
by this seeming sad end, if only to it we owe the pa- 
thetic chapter of "Fairy Music." The illustrations by 
Mr. Harry Furniss are in the happiest vein, delight- 
ful in all respects, and admirable for invention, spirit, 
humor, and ingenuity. In short, these drawings are 
the best work in book-illustration that the artist has 
yet published. 

' Contemporary reviews of Sylvie and Bruno and Sylvie and 
Bruno Concluded have appeared in Kf^ 62, 63, 67, 71 , and 72. 

- "Pippa Passes" was a drama in poetic fonm by Robert Brown- 
ing (1812-89), published in 1841. 



Leaves poo? 
r/je Deaneny Ganden 

I much enjoyed the latest issue, 
and continue to be impressed by 
the new format. In Sanjay Sircar's 
critique of Miles Franklin's "Tea 
with Alice," both the original arti- 
cle and the critique were of much 

I thought some additional foot- 
notes might be enjoyed. 

There's a minor error in saying 
that artist/ author George du Mau- 
rier was Peter Davies' maternal 
uncle. He was his maternal grand- 
father — the actor Gerald du Mau- 
rier was Peter's uncle. In addition 
to Peter Davies [the original Peter] 
and Gerald du Maurier [Hook and 
Mr Darling] , Hilda Trevelyan at 
the tea was a Peter Pan representa- 
tive — she was the first Wendy. 
Irene Vanbrugh (stage name, 
offstage she was Irene Barnes) was 
the daughter of Reginald Henry 
Barnes, a college classmate of C. L. 
Dodgson. She made her London 
stage debut as the Knave of Hearts 
in the first stage production of 
Alice in Wonderland (opened Dec. 
26, 1888), when she was 16. She 
was not in Peter Pan, but starred in 
some of J. M. Barrie's other plays, 

and her husband, Dion Boucicault 
the younger, directed Peter Pan. 

Mrs. Leonard Huxley must have 
been Leonard Huxley's second 
wife. Huxley was the husband of 
Julia Arnold (1862-1908). Dodg- 
son was friendly with her whole 
family (and had been a schoolboy 
at Rugby when her grandfather, 
Thomas Arnold, was the famous 
headmaster there). He was less 
acquainted with the older girls, 
Mary (1851-1920) and Lucy 
(1858-1894)— his only letter to 
or about Mary in Morton Cohen's 
collection of his letters is one he 
wrote her March 31, 1872, just a 
week before her marriage to Hum- 
phrey Ward. Carroll was better 
acquainted with Julia and Ethel 
(1866-1930). Leonard Huxley's 
father was T. H. Huxley, who did 
much to make known Darwin's 
theory of evolution. Leonard and 
Julia's sons were biologist Julian 
Huxley and novelist Aldous Hux- 
ley, whose unusual name was taken 
from a character in one of the 
novels of his aunt, Mrs. Humphrey 
Ward. (Her books are forgotten 
now, except by specialists, but she 

was immensely popular, and many 
of her novels were best sellers.) 

Kenneth Grahame was making 
his last public appearance at the 
tea. He died a week and a half 

Ruth Berman 
Minneapolis, MN 

There is much to be learned about the 
estimable Mary Arnold (Mrs. Ward) 
at xuww. uua. org/ uuhs/duub/ articles/ 
maryaugustaward.html, including the 
fact that there is an "unkind portrait 
of her as 'Mrs Foxe'" in Aldous Hux- 
ley's 1936 novel, Eyeless in Gaza. 

I am responding to the cartoon 
( A7. 73:33) , in which a hamster 
can't think of any famous ham- 

Perhaps the cartoonist is too 
young to remember a hamster 
from the 1950s who, for a bit, 
became very famous indeed. Max 
was a hamster created by the Swiss 
artist Giovannetti, whose mischie- 
vous creation I first saw in Punch. 
Subsequently, he appeared in at 
least three books: Max (Macmil- 


Ian, 1954), Max Presents (1956), 
and Nothing But Max (1959) . 

I hope you will mention this 
famous character in the next issue, 
and therefore redress the imbal- 
ance of people's perception of 
notable animals. 

Richard A. Harris 
Wilmington, NC 

I remember Max fondly. Let us not for- 
get Penfold, sidekick to Danger Mouse; 
Hamtaro and his Ham-Ham pals, 
from the world ofanime; those Kung- 
Fu hamster dolls; and the dancing 
hamsters once so prolific on the Web. 

Ursula K. Le Guin recently re- 
ceived the American Library 
Association's Margaret A. Edwards 
Lifetime Achievement Award. Her 
award speech appears in Young 
Adult Library Services, Vol. 3, no. 1, 
Fall 2004. 

On p. 24 she discusses the fact 
that fantasy bridges the gap be- 
tween age groups. 

"We read Alice in Wonderland 
or The Wind in the Willows first at 
eight, or earlier if they're read to 
us, and again at twelve, maybe, 
and again maybe every decade or 
so. And every time we read them 
we're a different person; yet each 
time, if we let them do it, they give 
us what is 'appropriate to our age- 
group' — kiddies or mid-lifers or 

Later she discusses the risk that 
fiction runs "of being rational- 
ized — interpreted, reduced to 
allegory, read as a message. Such 
reduction is a nefarious act. Teach- 
ers and critics indulge in it with 

the best of motives, but they leave 
ruin in their wake. Fortunately, the 
strongest fantasies simply shrug off 
interpretation like a horse twitch- 
ing off a fly. Everybody wants to 
tell us what Alice in Wonderland 
means, and the more they talk 
about Charles Dodgson and Vic- 
torian mores and mathematics 
and the libido, the farther they 
get from Lewis Carroll and Alice, 
who go on about their business on 
the chess board among the dodos, 
quite intact." 

Angelica Carpenter 
Fresno, CA 

Yesterday I had a check-up ap- 
pointment with the dentist, so 
afterward as a reward I went to 
the downtown Minneapolis Mar- 
shall Fields (or Dayton's, as we 
pronounce it) to see the holiday 
display, which this year is "Snow 
White and the Seven Dwarfs." 
This one has a lot more joking 
than usual — signs in the forest 
point the directions to Little Red 
Riding Hood's Grandmother, or 
insist "No Dragons," and so on. 
The dwarfs' diamond mine turns 
out to be a theme park ride, with 
Dorothy, Pinocchio, Alice, the 
White Rabbit, and a few more all 
standing in line to buy tickets to 
ride the little mine-trams. The 
Prince is something of a punk, 
his hair moussed into points, and 
wearing blue jeans. Quite a hand- 
some display. You may remember 
that some years back they had a 
spring-flowers display based on the 
Alice books, with the chessboard 
squares done in grasses of differ- 
ent colors, etc. 

Ruth Berman 
Minneapolis, MN 

All serious students of Lewis Car- 
roll are agreed on the huge debt 
that Carroll studies owe to Profes- 
sor Morton Cohen. His indefatiga- 
ble collection and collation of the 
material assembled in the two 

collections. The Letters of Lewis Car- 
roll and Intervieivs and Recollections, 
has produced enormously valuable 
research tools for students in this 
field. His 1995 biography was also 
by far the best offered to that date. 
However, a corrective to Cohen's 
remarks to a meeting of the 
LSCNA in October of 2003 {KL 
72:12-13) is essential. This dispute 
was not of our making and we 
would prefer to avoid any antago- 
nistic confrontations, but Profes- 
sor Cohen's remarks leave us with 
little choice than to reply. 
The first difficulty we have is 
with his attempt to homogenize 
recent scholarship under the term 
"Revisionist," which implies the 
type of commonality of origin, 
approach, motive, style and 
goal that suggests "conspiracy." 
Nothing could be further from 
the truth. The one unifying factor 
that Contrariwise (the loose 
association for the "New Analysis") 
possesses is a determination 
to follow the facts and expose 
fallacies. It acknowledges that 
these fallacies (which have led to 
what has been termed the "Carroll 
Myth") developed largely because 
of a paucity of primary evidences 
and an over-reliance on the 
Collingwood biography. 

It is interesting that the sole 
example Cohen offers of alleged 
"distortion" by this New Analysis 
is the straw man claim that revi- 
sionists aver that "Dodgson used 
children only to pursue their 
mothers." No such assertion has 
ever been made, to our knowl- 
edge, by anyone claiming to be a 
serious Carroll scholar. A number 
of reviewers and commentators 
have attempted to impose this 
preposterous view onto a single 
work — Karoline Leach's In the 
Shadoiu of the Dreamchild — and 
by very dubious association, the 
writings of Hugues Lebailly; such 
interpretations, of course, would 
be refuted not only by the writers 
in question, but by all those who 
have read their works objectively. 
Professor Cohen then makes a 


series of claims, which can be 
refuted by reference to facts. 

Claim: Dodgson never wrote 
acrostic poems for his older fe- 
male friends. 

Fact: Carroll wrote an acrostic 
to Polly Terry when she was 23, 
and one to Edith Rix when she was 
19. He wrote a highly sentimental 
ode to Hallie Cunnynghame when 
she was 16, he 36. 

Claim: Dodgson never walked 
long miles with his older female 
friends, the way he did with young 

Fact: The widowed Edith Shute 
records long walks with Dodgson, 
and he took walks with numerous 
of his lady-friends, including Cath- 
erine Lloyd who was actually older 
than he was. 

Claim: Dodgson 's female guests 
were always chaperoned by "the 
bevy of Dodgson 's sisters sur- 
rounding them." 

Fact: There is multi-sourced 
evidence that Dodgson regularly 
shared his Eastbourne digs with 
women like Gertrude Chataway, 
Catherine Lloyd, and Isa Bow- 
man — often for several nights at 
a stretch with no chaperone but 
the presence in the same house 
of the landlady (something that 
would hardly have been deemed 
sufficient by Mrs. Grundy) . Fur- 
ther, he entertained these women 
tete-a-tete in his Oxford rooms, 
sometimes late into the evening. 
He escorted engaged and mar- 
ried women on jaunts to London, 
walked them home in the moon- 
light, all without chaperonage. 
Even when at Guildford — and 
nominally under the chaperonage 
of his sisters — Dodgson enter- 
tained female friends of all ages in 
his bedroom, to the anxious disap- 
proval of his eldest sister. 

Dodgson signed a letter to one 
yoting woman "your sexagenarian 
lover," and compared being de- 
prived of the kisses of another to a 
thirsty man being denied a glass of 

Whether such actions by Dodg- 
son are evidence of romantic 

attachments or not is irrelevant to 
the purpose of this letter. The fact 
is that these actions exist and can- 
not be denied. 

Cohen then claims that "The 
revisionists count Dodgson's let- 
ters to mature women, but they do 
not say that most of those letters 
are about their children." 

We assume that Cohen here is 
referring to Leach's article in the 
Times Literary Supplement (8 Febru- 
ary 2002) as we know of no other 
list. If this is the case, the original 
article makes it clear that the fig- 
ures quoted refer only to women- 
friends ("letters to so-called child- 
friends" is the precise wording); 
letters to mothers of child-friends and 
to female relatives are discounted. An 
updated version of this analysis is 
now available on the "Looking for 
Lewis Carroll" website (see below). 

Finally there is Leach's discov- 
ery in the Dodgson family archives 
that Professor Cohen denigrates as 
the "infamous scrap of paper." 

Cohen, according to the 
LCSNA report, said "that he and 
Philip Dodgson Jacques... had 
a good laugh about the asser- 
tion... that it had been written by 
Violet Dodgson, Carroll's niece. 
Cohen knows exactly who wrote it 
and promises to reveal this infor- 
mation in a forthcoming book or 
article. In the meantime, the in- 
formation has been deposited for 
safekeeping in an envelope should 
anything happen to him before he 
has the opportunity to explain this 
matter in print." 

If we are to accept Professor Co- 
hen's account, he is now denying 
that this "infamous scrap of paper" 
(otherwise known as the "cut 
pages in diary" document) has any 
significant validity. He is saying it 
is not new to him and it was not 
written by Violet Dodgson in the 
1930s but much more recently by 
some other individual he refuses 
to name, and is hinting — ^without 
openly stating — that it is in some 
way therefore of no value, perhaps 
a forgery. 

This raises several questions. 

If Professor Cohen had known 
about this document for years, 
then why had he never mentioned 
it in print? 

Again, in 1996, shortly after the 
discovery of this page, at a meet- 
ing of the Lewis Carroll Society of 
Great Britain, Professor Cohen was 
asked about this paper. According 
to Mr. Leach's notes, his unequivo- 
cal reply at the time was, "I did not 
know about the paper, but if I had 
it would have made no difference" 
(to Professor Cohen's biography 
and his conclusions). 

These facts are hard to recon- 
cile with the claims Cohen is pres- 
ently making and some form of 
clarification is evidently needed. 
He needs to make his views about 
the provenance and value clear. Is 
he suggesting that it is not an accu- 
rate summary of the missing page? 
If so, then how does he know this? 
These things are urgently requir- 
ing of an explanation. 

In conclusion, it is our earnest 
hope that Professor Cohen will 
respond to this letter by either 
correcting his statements or pro- 
viding verifiable evidences where 
appropriate so that those of us 
who may have erred can make suit- 
able corrections or modifications 
to our works. 

John Tufail, Mike Leach 
Contrariwise, the Association 
for New Lewis Carroll Studies 

Thank you for letting me see the 
letter by Messrs. Tufail and Leach. 
I have already addressed their 
concerns in my recent article in 
the Times Literary Supplement. I 
suggest they read it. 

Morton N. Cohen 

"When love was young" by Morton 
Cohen in the (London) Times Liter- 
ary Supplement (TLS), September 
10, 2004, discusses the failed apolo- 
gists for the sexuality of Lewis Car- 
roll. " Cohen takes on the "apologists, " 
beginning with Dodgson 's heirs and 
biographers, and the "revisionists, " 
beginning with Karoline Leach; specu- 


lates on Dodgson's 1863 rift with the 
Liddelh; and claims that the handxorit- 
ing on the noted piece of paper upon 
which Leach builds her case is not that 
ofDodgson 's niece Violet, as Leach 
claimed, but rather that of Cohen's 
friend, the late Philip Jacques, then 
executor of the Dodgson estate. 

The essential question of the hand- 
writing is xvhether Jacques just penned 
comments on the note, or was responsi- 
ble for the text of the note itself . Cohen 
does not altogether dismiss the ques- 
tion. His article asks: "Could Jacques 
have misremembered about the ivriting 
on that piece of paper and could the 
handroriting be Violet Dodgson 's after 
all?" and goes on to state that even if 
that were true, it does not remove the 
validity of his arguments. 

Readers interested in the details of 
the original cut pages are advised to see 
the Yahoo Lervis Carroll discussion list, 
especially the comments made by Mike 
Leach on October 26, 2003 (groups. mes- 
sage/ 9244; you do not have to belong 
to this group to read it). The Contrari- 
wise site (luww. lookingfor offers a compendium 
of much of the best of the new Carroll 
scholarship and readers are urged to 
visit it and form their oivn judgments 
as to the quality of the work. It has 
a great deal of very valuable source 
material, including a new section on 
Dodgson 's emotional and social life. 
They are also in the process of setting 
up a "critical comments " section for 
points of view opposing theirs. Contri- 
butions of any length are invited for 
consideration and should be sent to 

The TLS article is not on the Web 
at this xvriting, but the present editor 
would be happy to send a photocopy to 
anyone requesting it. 

"'Are they in the prisoner's hand- 
writingV" asked another of the jury- 
men. 'No, they 're not, ' said the White 

Rabbit, 'and that 's the queerest thing 
about it. ' (The jury all looked puzzled. ) 



The delightful radio program 
"Says You" included a new 
category today (August 1 , 2004) , 
in which the contestants had 
to guess the titles of unlikely 
collaborations between authors. 
The best, of course, was Lewis 
Carroll and Tennessee Williams' 
Through the Looking-Glass Mena- 

Andrew Ogus 
San Francisco 


Tim and I were channel surfing 
this evening (December 9) and 
stopped at the SciFi channel when 
we came across a puzzling scene of 
a bunch of naked people running 
distractedly around on a beach, 
putting on generic Old Navy-ish 
clothing and generally behaving 
like a bunch of film extras. Enter 
an attractive man and beauti- 
ful young blonde woman who 
have already donned their time- 
less togs. After brief dialogue, 
they introduce themselves. He's 
an American named Jeff Hale. 
She's a Brit named Alice Liddell 
Hargreaves. Come again? We put 
down the remote at that point. It 
seems they're both dead, only now 
they're not. And they're some- 
place that looks like Earth, but it's 
not. The flick was a SciFi Channel 
original called Rivenoorld, based 
on the first two books of a series. 

She is indeed the Mice, and 
reference is made early on to 
her having been an octogenar- 
ian with children. Amusing that 
she's blonde, but at least they 
pronounced "Liddell" correctly. A 
young and photogenic Sam Clem- 
ens shows up later as well, with a 
homemade riverboat. We watched 

the whole show this evening, and 
it was pretty unexceptional fare 
despite the tease of mixing in real 
and fictional characters. There 
were a couple of nice touches, 
though — Alice is of course beloved 
by everyone, and all the men want 
her. She befriends Sam Clemens' 
little girl and draws a picture of 
her dressed like the Mad Hat- 
ter. And late in the film, when a 
young, studly and sneering Nero 
(yup, that Nero) is trying to com- 
promise our heroine and make 
her his empress, he backs her 
up against a table, leans over her 
and says something to the effect 
of: "There's a mystery to you. I 
can see it in your eyes. Some man 
hurt you deeply." Indeed? Wait till 
some Carroll revisionists get their 
hands on this bit of documentary 
evidence. Not to mention Nero 
and Alice. Who knew? 

Also, coincidentally, in perus- 
ing the site's evening 
schedule, I noted that there was a 
Farscape eTfixsode entitled "Through 
the Looking Glass," in which the 
main spaceship is evidently frag- 
mented into four separate realities 

So I guess unofficially there 
was a mini-Carroll festival in Sci-Fi 
Land tonight. 

Andrew Sellon 
New York City 

Philip Jose Farmer launched his Riv- 
erworld series xuith the novelette "The 
Day of the Great Shout" in the January 
1 965 issue o/Worlds of Tomorrow. 
Combining that story xuith "The Sui- 
cide Express " in the March 1 966 issue, 
he created the Hugo Award-winning 
novel To Your Scattered Bodies Go 
(1971). The series now includes at 
least ten novels, short-story collections, 
and miscellanea. The television series 
was first aired in November 2000. 


3n ilemoriam 

Hilda Bohem 

(August 9, 1916 -July 26, 2004) 
Hilda Bohem was a former UCLA Special Collections Librarian and a film and telelvision 
writer whose credits include The Truth About Murder, The Cisco Kid, Rawhide, Dr. Kildare, and 
Hong Kong. She was a member of many Lewis Carroll Societies and the author of several essays 
on Carrolliana, book preservation, and many other topics, and of several books including 
Jabberland, a Wfiiffle Through the Tulgey Wood of "Jabberwocky" Imitations. The claim to fame she 
most cherished was detecting that the 1872 Lee 8c Shepard edition of Through the Looking- 
GlassvjdiS printed by Macmillan at the same time they printed their London and New York 
editions and was, in fact, the same sheets with a different title page. The widow of screenwriter 
and producer Endre Bohem, she is survived by her sister, Blossom, her son, Leslie, and her 
grandson, Charlie. 

In loving tribute to her, we have printed her essay "Collecting Lewis Carroll" on p. 30. 


Frank Thomas 

September 5, 1912 - September 9, 2004 
One of Disney's "Nine Old Men," he animated the Queen of Hearts. His partner, Oilie 
Johnson, is now the last survivor of that hallowed group. 




Susan Sontag 

January 16, 1933 - December 28, 2004 
Activist, intellectual, and author of numerous books, plays, stories, essays, and films, her oeuvre 
includes the play Alice in Bed, written in 1992, a dramatic fantasy on the life of Alice James with 
much imagery of Alice Liddell woven in. 


Frances Hansen 

1919 -July 9, 2004 
Frances Hansen, a crossword puzzle creator renowned for using original poems as clues, died at 
the age of 85. Her obituary in The Nexo York Times mentioned that the first of 83 puzzles she cre- 
ated for them (December 27, 1964) was called "Ykcowrebbaj." Carrollians will find special joy in 
it. As a tribute to her, we reproduce the puzzle on p. 35, and the answer on p. 41. 


Collecting Lewis Carroll 


It isn't easy to know where to place the blame. 
Thinking back to 1965 when I was in Library 
School, I can pinpoint what started it. But whom 
to blame? Joe, fellow student, for announcing that 
University Microfilms was publishing a facsimile of 
the first Alice and for offering to place an order for 
anyone who wanted a copy? University Microfilms for 
doing such a thing? Or maybe Lewis Carroll for writ- 
ing the book I read with ritual regularity once a year 
with constantly maturing pleasure? 

I have to confess that I knew nothing about the 
author, nor did I know anything about the history of 
the book. When Joe delivered my promised "first edi- 
tion," ten dollars net, I didn't know what to make of 
it. The illustrations were wrong, all wrong. The whole 
thing was neatly handwritten, and that was wrong, 
too. Not that ten dollars was such a huge amount, but 
for a while there I felt as if I had been had. At last I re- 
alized that this skinny book in its light greenish-blue 
binding was called Alice's Adventures under Ground, not 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Only after that came 
the realization that this was a facsimile of the original 
manuscript with illustrations by the author himself. A 
short preface by Luther Evans put it all into proper 
perspective for me. I slid my purchase back into its 
slipcase. That was nice. I had never had a book with 
a slipcase before. Trying to swallow my disappoint- 
ment — I had really counted on a bright new copy of 
my familiar Alice — I turned my attention to Joe who 
was explaining the book to another puzzled class- 
mate. I was getting more educated by the minute. 

A few weeks later, showing an East Coast visitor 
the sights, I dropped into Peggy Christian's book- 
shop. I had never been there before. Step two in 
my education: I found a copy of Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland illustrated by Arthur Rackham. Amazing! 
Someone other than Tenniel (and not Lewis Carroll) 
had illustrated Wonderland. So much to learn, and I 
was getting a cram course. 

Next day in school, I told Joe about discovering 
that Rackham had illustrated Wonderland. Well, he 
knew that. He assured me that many famous artists 
had illustrated the book. But Rackham — a Rackham 
Wonderland was special and very valuable, a collector's 
dream. "Worth more than nine dollars?" I asked in- 
nocently. "Nine hundred's more like it." And I hadn't 
bought it. 

On my next free day, I went to the bookstore of 
"that stupid dealer who didn't know what a valuable 
book she had." Oh, Peggy, forgive me, callow crea- 
ture that I was. Anyone who knew Peggy knows that 
she was one of the smartest and most ethical of book- 
sellers, and a woman who really knew her books. I 
was lucky to become her friend. But that afternoon 
I was especially lucky because the book I wanted had 
been sold. Undoubtedly, had I found it still there, I 
would have bought it, and that would have been the 
end instead of the beginning of my collecting. Peggy 
was quick to spot a potential collector, and she was 
generous in her willingness to share information and 
advice. Her enthusiasm for Lewis Carroll made me 
realize how much more there was than the Rackham 
Wonderland. I also learned from her, to my chagrin, 
that Joe's "collector's dream" Rackham was a very dif- 
ferent book from the one I had seen for nine dollars. 
That was a trade edition worth, at that time, exactly 
nine dollars. The collector's dream is a large quarto 
with elegant tipped-in plates, meant to be a special 
gift book for a favorite child, but really much too 
good for her dirty little hands. 

Now that I knew there were two different books, 
I was obsessed with a determination to find both of 
them. I spent every free moment combing the local 
bookstores. In 1965 there were still a lot of them in 
Los Angeles, big ones with fancy books, big ones with 
cheap books, hole-in-the-wall bookshops that were 
run by peculiarly scroungy-looking men. These last 
were a little scary to go into, but invariably they had a 
section of children's books and often I was rewarded 
with an Alice. I went to garage sales and church sales 
and even sales of library discards. All I was looking 
for was those two Rackhams, the trade edition and 
the deluxe. What I found was an endless variety of 
Alices by an endless variety of publishers in an end- 
less variety of bindings with an endless variety of il- 
lustrations. I couldn't leave them alone. Without ever 
thinking it through, I was buying them all. Nobody 
else seemed to be interested in them. They could be 
had for a song. 

In the space of two years I must have bought 
every Alice in the city. I know there are some that I 
have never seen for sale again, unique to this collec- 
tion. Condition was not important. If I didn't have 
it, a poor book could be a space-filler until a better 


copy came along. At first I tried to avoid duplicates, 
but I couldn't always remember, as my shelves filled, 
whether I had a particular book or not, so I bought. 
They were cheap, no great investment individually, 
although quantity was beginning to tear at my bud- 
get. Soon I realized that there were almost never du- 
plicates. There was always some small but significant 
difference, a difference in publication date, a differ- 
ence in binding cloth. Peggy encouraged me in my 
greedy harvesting, teaching me that bibliographic 
differences had their place in scholarship just as tex- 
tual differences did. She introduced me to the work 
of her friend Thomas Tanselle, a brilliant bibliogra- 
pher, who made me aware of second editions while I 
was just discovering firsts. 

While I was still in Library School, strongly under 
the influence of our dean, Lawrence Clark Powell, I 
had romantic notions about book hunting. Larry, a 
spell-binding teacher, once described his search for 
an insignificant book that had special importance for 
him. He walked one day into a shop he had never 
visited before, and as he came through the door, he 
felt himself drawn toward the back where, in a dark 
corner, stood a tower of books all but ready to topple 
over. Without hesitating, he reached for a book at 
the bottom of the stack, and it was the book he had 
been seeking for years. This was the romance of book 
shopping, and this was what I, too, felt when I was on 
the hunt for Alice. I decided that, like Larry, I had the 
"gift." (I don't know whether the stack of books fell 
over. Larry never told us.) 

My first job after I graduated was with Harry 
Levinson, a rare book dealer who specialized in six- 
teenth and seventeenth century books. Here I be- 
came sophisticated. I learned that there were books 
worth hundreds, even thousands, of dollars, and that 
my nickel-and-dime scrounging for Alice -was, not the 
only way to go. Although Carroll was late for this 
shop, occasionally Harry would buy a private library 
and there would be a few fine children's books mixed 
in with Aurelius and Shakespeare. Both Harry and his 
wife scorned children's books, so I was able to buy, 

almost at a price I could afford, the first important 
book for my collection, the Limited Edition Club 

There was no stopping me then. I was a collec- 
tor. Peggy, who had been nurturing my interest with 
modest books a few steps above what I had been find- 
ing around town, now began to tempt me with the 
glorious books there were to be had. I moved on to 
a job that paid more than a bookstore could so that I 
might continue feeding my collector's appetite. 

I joined the Lewis Carroll Society that had just 
started in London and discovered from their jour- 
nal, /a^^^rwoc^)), that people wrote interesting articles 
about Lewis Carroll. I looked at my books with a new 
eye, and I realized at once that I had many, many Al- 
ices published by Henry E. Altemus that were distin- 
guished by variant bindings because they belonged to 
different series. They had different title pages, and a 
different illustration was used for the frontispiece in 
each. I wrote an article about them that was published 
in The Papers of the Bibliographic Society of America. My 
collection had taken on meaning. It was no longer a 
bunch of books to show off, but a working collection, 
useful for research and scholarly pursuits. But by this 
time it had some pretty books and some real rarities. I 
had learned how to read dealers' catalogues and even 
buy books by mail. 

Wlien Byron Sewell wanted to compile a bibliog- 
raphy of American editions of the two Alicebooks, all 
of those multiples — not quite dupes, and there were 
many besides Altemus — paid off. I was able to sup- 
port his research extensively, often with information 
about books that nobody else had supplied. His book 
Much of a Muchness, although it was published in a 
very small edition, is a solid bibliography worthy of 
wider circulation. 

There are plenty of scholarly papers still tucked 
away in this collection. It delights me to know that 
it will live in a university setting where its beautiful 
books will give pleasure and its entirety will get the 
sort of use I never thought of when I started to scour 
Los Angeles looking for the Rackham Alice. 





MS we all know, Lewis Carroll himself was 
fond of composing acrostic — and double 
acrostic — poems and puzzle-poems. Acros- 
tics, from the Greek dKpos (at the top) and T(xos(a 
line of verse), are found in the Old Testament (Psalm 
119), ancient Rome (the Sibylline Oracles), and 
throughout history. 

The National Puzzle Museum credits invention 
of the double acrostic to Queen Victoria in the 1860s 
(of course, she has also been credited with writing the 
Alicehooks, more's the pity) . That she did not, but she 

did compose — and helped to popularize — them. 
Their popularity was eventually eclipsed by that 
of the crossword puzzle. (Although they have 
an ancient lineage, the first modern crossword 
puzzle appeared in a supplement to the New York 
World in 1913.) 

The double-crostic combines the best features 
of both. Invented by Elizabeth Kingsley, the first 
was published in 1934 in the Saturday Review. 

The answer may be found on page 46. 

Instructions: A cross betioeen "h-a-n-g-m-a-n, " acrostic verse, and crossxvord puzzles, the double-cros- 
tic has a life of its own. Fill in the words beside the clues, writing a letter above each blank. Transfer 
each letter to the numbered square of the diagram corresponding to the number below the letter. The 
letters in the top left comer of each diagram square indicate the appropriate word below, providing 
a cross-reference. As you progress, xoords and phrases taking shape in the diagram, reading across, 
will provide a quotation from a published work. The dark squares mark the end of words. As you fill 
out words and phrases in the quote, you can transfer the letters to the clues, below. Additionally, the 
first letters of the answers, reading down, spell out the identity of the author and the book. 

W 1 









G 6 

1 7 



W 10 





A 13 





J 16 

N 17 










HU 22 

P 23 

Z 24 

T 25 

1 26 

P 27 





M 30H 



G 32 

A 33 









1 38 

A 39^^H X 40 

T 41 


U 42 

1 43 





K 46 




T 49 

K 50 









55^^HX 56 

T 57 

1 58 

E 59 

U 60 





K 63 





A 66 

X 67H 








Z 72 

C 73 

F 74 

D 75^^HA 76 





Y 79 


80 ■ 

Bw 81 

T 82 

R 83 









U 88 

A 89 

B 90 

Y 91 

F 92 

A 93^^HT 




T 96 





D 99 

J 100 











W 106 

B 107 

T 108 

R 109 


L 111 

Z 112 




1 114 





H 117 

X 118 

U 119 











G 125 

G 126 

W 127 

T 128 

Z 129 

V 130 



X 132 





G 135 

N 136 

W 137H 
L I54I 








M 141 

A 142 

X 143^^HR 144 

Q 145 

P 146 





U 149 




C 152 

T 153 









D 159 

U 160 

X 161 

K 162 

W 163 

1 164^^HP 




R 167H 



S 169 

U 170 









HM 175 

Z 176 

Q 177 


B 179^^HK 180 








U 185 

E 186 

Y 187 











1 193 

Q 194 ^^HT 195 

F 196 

P 197 

W 198 





K 200 





U 203 


F 204 









HF 209 

T 210 

J 211 

P 212 

G 213 

W 214^^H 





A. Banks' family handyman in Mary Poppins 

TF 192 1^ 142 208 TT "gT Te" 133 "89" If 

B. "Where was the sun?" according to Arthur Conan 

Doyle's "The Musgrave Ritual" (3 words) i84^o^T5"i39iT9"6F206"5Tio7Tr 

C. A small tool for boring, with a pointed screw at 

one end and a handle at the other 134 ^T lol 152 "5" 120 

D. How one should feel in order to see fairies, 

according to Sylvie and Bruno 105 ^75" 159 TT "99" 

E. Having an outer edge, border margin, or brink 

173 155 186 "59" ~4~ TT 

F. "Distinguishing those that have feathers, and bite, 

From those that have whiskers, and ." 209 147 "92^ Ts" 204 T4" Tie 

G. A swelling up, as with congestion ^^| 

^Bi "32" 191126"T"l40"80"2T3^'62'l83125 

H. A dog, esp. a mongrel iHi| 

I. English chemist, author, and clergyman who H 

discovered oxygen ^^B i" 114 "ss" ^T Te" 113 Is" Tel 

J. "Yet what are all such gaities to me 

Whose thoughts are full of indices and ?" IT 211 Too iso ~ 

K. Cloud over, becloud, obscure 

Tie 162 115 T6" 200 ~6T Ti" TT iso ~50~ 

L. Small piece of tortilla topped with cheese, hot 

peppers, etc., and broiled IT m 154 Ts" ^ 

M. In Vedantic philosophy, the quality of goodness 

or purity IF 175 103 30" r?T iss 

N. Capital of seventeenth-century Persia ^^m 

foT" TT T23 166 104 136 IT 

O. Type of hat worn by Mr. Lear in his "Self- 

Portrait of the Laureate of Nonsense" i24T78T4"iIor2iT2'"4Tr5i 

P. Author of iVonderland and "Dodgson's Golden 

Hours" (full name) m20ii46T5"Tri22~8~2i2^77"T4"Tri97"9Ti74i65 

Q. Expels or removes from a place or position 

177 202 T94 TT 145 

R. Of or pertaining to the state between waking and 

sleep (like Alice's sister at the end of Wonderland) '9Fr67r44T6"l9oTT6lT"6rTo9"8T 

S. A colorless, volatile petroleum distillate, used as 

a solvent for fuel ise 102 Ti" 205 "IF TT lei 

T. Subtitle of The Mikado (4 words) , 

195 TT FT FF 210 ~94' lis IF Tee FF T53 T08 T28 "F" TF 

U. Instrument for measuring the degree of tactile 

sensation. -uz T19 203 iab ^ ~i2 Teo Tn Tsi 'sb ~22 Tas ito 

V. Utmost degree .;■ ., 

130 FF TsT 

W. Compensation awarded when substantial 

compensable loss has not been established (2 words) T98FFTFi"l~TF7TrT63TF7FFTo6FFFT2r4Fr 

X. Inspire with unreasoning passion 

Tie 143 TT '^ ~io' 132 TeT 'se' FT 

Y. Elicit, summon, produce 

Jfj. , 157 FT FF TF 

Z. River in S. E. Zaire 

112 'si' T99 Ti FF TTe TJi 


Ravings fKom rhe Wmring Desk 



X" et me first wish all our members and their 

I families and friends a happy and healthy 

.AsH^^^New Year. This past year was a good one for 
our Society, and 2005 should be even better. 

The previous issue of the Knight Letter covered our 
very successful spring meeting at the Houghton Li- 
brary at Harvard, and I'm sure you have already read 
in this issue about the outstanding 
gathering we recently held at the 
Arne Nixon Center for the Study of 
Children's Literature at California 
State University, Fresno. Angelica 
Carpenter, a member of our Board 
of Directors and the curator of the 
Arne Nixon Center, arranged a full 
day and evening of activities, and I 
thank her and the entire staff at the 

Many of you knew Hilda Bohem, 
who passed away in the summer. Our 
thanks go to Hilda's family members 
Gillian Garro, Blossom Norman, 
and Les Bohem, for helping us re- 
member Hilda by means of a mov- 
ing tribute arranged by August Im- 
holtz and Angelica. Thanks are also 
due to Byron Sewell for creating 
and publishing a Carrollian story 
dedicated to Hilda, which was given to attendees as 
a keepsake. 

I again want to thank our top-notch featured 
speakers Robert Sabuda, Peter Hanff, and Linda 
Sunshine for coming all the way to Fresno with their 
enthusiastic and enlightening talks, and for putting 
up with the seemingly endless line of members and 
guests who wanted their books signed. Personally, I 
spent Sunday morning packing my new books into 
some extra baggage. 

Now would be a great time for me to remind you 
to put aside April 30 on your calendars for our next 
meeting. It will be in New York City at the impressive 
New York Public Library, home of the Berg Collec- 
tion,' on the same weekend as the ABAA Book Fair.'-^ 
And while you are at it, mark October 15 for a very 
special meeting in Des Moines, Iowa. More details 
will be on our Web site as they become available. 

Charlie Lovett, past president, chaired our pub- 
lications committee for many years, and although he 
has passed the baton, will continue to edit the series 
The Pamphlets of Lewis Carroll. On behalf of all mem- 
bers, I want to thank Charlie for his dedication to im- 
proving our publications efforts. And let's all express 
gratitude to Dr. Fran Abeles for agreeing to pick up 
overall responsibility for our pub- 
lications program. In addition to 
being the author or editor of many 
works, including two books in the 
aforementioned series, Fran is also 
the treasurer of the Society and our 
resident expert on all things math- 

There are so many members 
who have had to take on multiple 
roles in guiding our Society. Please 
consider getting more involved 
yourself. Contact me anytime you 
want to suggest an idea. 

We recently started accepting 
membership dues and meeting fees 
online. Many of our 350 members 
already do things online (especially 
the collectors) and, under the direc- 
tion of Joel Birenbaum, our web- 
master, we will be expanding our 
online services this year, making it easier to sign up 
at our Web site with online payments. We also plan to 
advertise our large inventory of books in this same 
manner to help reduce storage space and costs. 

Finally, let me say it is a privilege to serve 
as president and on behalf of 
myself, Mark Burstein (vice 
president) , Cindy Watter 
(secretary), and Fran Abeles, 
we thank the members at the 
recent meeting for re-electing 
us to another term. 






NY Times, Sunday, December 27, 1964 Ykcowrebbaj 

Frances Hansen/Margaret Farrar 


1 . Paid 

a kitten 


English illustrator 


English author 




Merchant of 



Well-known part of 





Fur, in heraldry 


Fipple flute 




Reference term 


Prefix for sol or 



Koko's forte 


Rabbit's feature 


Spore sacs 


See 68 Across 


Request to a 



One kind of pocket 


Most delicate 


Old sailing ships 


Certain playing 











Rice, Italian style 


Mine: Fr. 


Paints, in a way 


Adjective suffix 








Pianist or cellist 


Ranch animal 


Fair of face: Scot. 




Bandersnatch and 







Meat sauce 


Depots: Abbr. 






Red Sea gulf 


Bladed tool 


Threefold: It. 


Like the Cheshire 






109. Learned 

110. Coal miner 

111. Twice wed 

114. British honour 

115. Discourtesy 
117. Rowing 
119. Epochs 
123. Lullaby word 

127. Agave plant 

128. Eager 

130. Famous muralist 

131. Bone: Prefix 


























" m 


































" ■ 











68 ^H^S 






65 ^H66 











■ ■ 









81 82 83 
















96 97 












108 ^H109 









118 ^^^H 

119 12^^^^^^ 

121 122 




































© NY Times. Lltzed by Barry 

132. Scenic lake near 

134. Treated as a 


138. Washington group 

139. Bright thought 
apropos 25 Across 

144. Deal in: Poet. 

145. Land holding, in 

146. Contrition 

147. Electra's brother 

148. Diamonds 

149. Relative of a love 


1 . Dead sin of sloth 

2. Minor moguls 

3. Calamitous 

4. Backslide 

5. Venetian 

6. Too-too 

7. Feathered 

8. Had a reputation 

9. Oread 

10. When the curtain 

11. N.Z. parrots 

12. Month: Abbr. 

13. Chasse 

14. Least exciting 

15. Suffix in chemistry 

16. Kind of degree 

17. Night, to 24 Across 

18. Kind of ink 

19. Unit:Ger. 

20. Lots 

23. What Fortune 
does, maybe 

26. Siberian region 

27. Sedative 

33. Flow of invective 
36. Cotton or canvas 

40. Photographing, 

41. Name in Jane 
Austen book 

42. Namesakes of the 

43. Son of Adam 

44. Letters 

46. French song, "Ca 

47. Fabrics 
49. In a comical 

51. Ichabod's rival 

52. Inner: Prefix 

53. Kind of cradle 

54. Aperture 

55. Campus areas 

56. Not yet solved 

57. Honor 

58. Prop man's 

61. Certain 

63. Unearth 
65. Anointing 
69. Flower basket: 

71. Having a liking 

74. Times: Abbr. 

76. Of an anc. 
assembly in 

77. Man's name: Abbr. 

79. Blacksmith's 

80. Support 

82. Certain noblemen 

83. Math term 

84. Incident 

85. Irish dramatist 

87. " a child..." 

88. Pranksters 

90. Man's nickname 

91. Hack 

92. CPA's concern 

93. Brush the surface 

95. Talking birds: Var. 

96. Prior to 

97. Short sword 
100. Feature 

102. City built without 

undue haste 
104. Gist: Colloq. 
106. Opera role 
108. Upsets 

112. Charm 

113. Prepare, as eggs 
116. Namesakes of 

Alice's cat 
118. Oz man 

120. Tape 

121. Melodious 

122. Posts 

123. What do you 

124. Aisle man 

125. Couturier's 

126. German salutes 
129. Desire: Sp. 

133. Certain notes 

134. Famed beach 

1 35. uproar 

136. Make eyes at 

137. Decorations 

140. Hebrew letter: Var. 

141. Marie, for one: 

142. Chess piece: Abbr. 

143. Forerunner of a 





This poem, published in Punch on January 10, 1874, 
appears to be the first reference of any kind to an 
Alicehook in the "London Charivari" since Wonderland 
nine years before. It significantly celebrates Tenniel, 
a regular Punch contributor, rather than Carroll. 

The poem suggests great popular excitement 
attendant upon the anticipated appearance of a 
live dodo in England — but whether this was a con- 
temporary rumor, or a clever hoax, is not clear. 
The bird was certainly known to be extinct at the 

time; fossil bones had been discovered and identi- 
fied as early as 1864, and the distinguished British 
anatomist Sir Richard Owen wrote a description of 
the dodo in 1866. Alice herself was a frequent visitor 
to the stuffed dodo at Oxford. Modern day visitors to 
the Oxford Natural History Museum may still see a 
dodo display, right next to the large "Lewis Carroll" 
display case containing taxidermied animals men- 
tioned in Wonderland. 

An Irregular Song on a Regular Sell 

'TwAS cried, "The Dodo comes!" 
And in ten thousand homes 
Was raised a shout of zoologicjoy. 

"The Dodo comes, the Dodo comes, 
He is not one of humbug's hums. 
And at the Zoo we'll give him crumbs," 
Quoth many a giggling girl to many a babbling boy. 
WTiile graver parents, owl-like, winked, 
"We heard the creature was extinct. 

How litde, O, 

Doth science know 
Of what this wondrous world can show. 

And yet she dares 

Object to prayers. 

And be quite hetero- 

Dox" — et cetera. 
While He who years ago implored 
With verse in many a memory stored, 
That none would say there were no Dodos now, 

Prepared exulting lay 

To hail the happy day 
WTien round this Dodo naturalists should bow. 

Alice, from Wonderland, 

Stretched out a tiny hand, 
With picture where the Dodo plain was seen — 

And cried, in high delight, 

"I knew my dream was right, 
I know the Dodo," said John Tenniel's "Queen." 

Opposite, Sir Richard Owen and die skeleton of a diornis 
(a giant moa). 

The Classic Comic Cove 

Swift through Pope's Iliad drove — 

For something touching Dodo-nean Jove, 
But wit's great Master, 
Punch, neater, faster, 

Said, "Dodo, mother. Sir, of Zoroaster." 
Only the Club-men, quite averse 
To science, muttered "Blow" (or worse) 

"The Dodo! Bother Dodos! Come to Dominoes!" 

The scoff seemed childish, but in truth, 'twas ominous. 

Owen's praise demands my song, 
Owen sound, Owen strong — 
But on New Year's Day 'twas cruel 
Thus to give us all our gruel. 
"Dodo!" mighty Richard cries. 
Scornful lightning in his eyes — 
"Dodo, Dodo, no such luck; 
WTiat's a-coming is a Duck. 
I can draw, and paint, and model it — 
Sirs, 'tis nothing but a Dodlet. 
Perhaps you'll take the pains to look 
At its picture in my book. 
Dodo. Bo! you geese. Methinks 
Phoenix next we'll have, or Sphinx. 
Fools I call you not, but think 
When you're thirsty, fools would drink." 

So from opening our eyes its form must part 
So Owen's wrench must tear it from our heart — 
The idle dream of Dodo-life is o'er — 
The bird, canard, and we be fooled no more. 







- -^^ - 

Christian Bok, whose book Eunoia (Coach House, 2001) 
won the Griffin Prize for Poetic Excellence, is a Canadian 
author and poet of experimental literature, who is also 
known for his artworks, performances of sound poetry, and 
for the artificial languages he created for two television 
shows. He describes Cryst3\logrsLphy (Coach House, 1994, 
rev. 2003) as "a pataphysical encyclopedia that misreads 
the language of poetics through the conceits of geology, " 
explaining that the word "crystallography " quite literally 
means "lucid writing. " It is an utterly brilliant tour deforce 
throughout. The section "Enantiomorphosis " comprises 
several fictive scholarly fables recalling those ofBorges, all 
having to do xvith mirrors. 

Rev. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (1832-1898), 
a British mathematician, wrote about his 
experiments with hallucinogenic drugs, re- 
cording his experiences on some pages tipped into a 
single copy of the first edition of his treatise on geom- 
etry, Euclid and His Modern Rivals, a copy now thought 
to be in the possession of a private collector in Lux- 

Dodgson reported that, while reading the book 
Al Aaraaf during his studies at Christ Church in Ox- 
ford, he grew ever more curious about altered states 
of mental awareness and thus decided to visit a phar- 
macy where he acquired a dose of crystallized opiates 
in the hope that he too might experience within the 
privacy of his own garret the visions of the poetry. 
Dodgson wrote that, shortly after administering the 
drug in an infusion of laudanum, he began to feel 
an ominous anxiety while contemplating the halo of 
light rays emanating from a gas lamp in his room, for 
the rays seemed to grow steadily more distinct, more 
refined, attenuating themselves into long, slender 
needles honed to a divine acuity, the lamp transmut- 
ing into what he described as "a silvery thistle of illu- 
mination, radiating acicular beams of searing energy 
that pierced through any object in their path." Dis- 
tressed, he stood up suddenly from his desk and ac- 
cidentally knocked over a looking glass, only to see it 
topple in slow motion onto the floor, where the mir- 
ror burst into smithereens. 

Dodgson claimed that, to his amazement, the 
glittering fragments of the broken mirror floated up 
one by one into the air, each a spinning prism that 
began to orbit elliptically around his head and body 
at an accelerated rate until all the shards formed 
a kind of kaleidoscopic shield that deflected the 
sharpened beams of gaslight. Dodgson, euphoric, 
described himself later as "a tree surrounded by its 
nimbus of silver leaves when the wind shivers them to 
life." Mesmerized, he attempted to step out through 
this cyclonic barrier of flying shrapnel, only to faint 
when the light rays pierced him at every point and 
the bladed shards of glass sliced him to shreds. Dodg- 
son awoke, uninjured, hours later beside his broken 
mirror and promptly recorded the hallucination in 
his journal, but then decided to keep his experience 
secret for fear of being diagnosed as deranged by his 
academic colleagues, who thought him a bit queer 
for befriending pubescent girls by composing for 
them nonsensical verse. 

© Christian Bok, 200.'?, and reprinted with permission. 



Speaking ahom Alice 


One day last spring, after a lovely dinner at 
Musso and Frank's Grill, Angelica Carpen- 
ter asked me to speak at the forthcoming 
LCSNA meeting in October. I curtsied while I was 
thinking what to say. "Okay," I thought, "that gives 
me six months to work on a speech. No problem." I 
agreed to speak at the meeting. You should know this 
about me: Any deadline that is more than a month 
away is no problem. 

Well, it's amazing how quickly six months can 
go when you are in a state of total denial. Right after 
Labor Day, Angelica started sending friendly emails 
saying that she had booked my hotel reservations. 
She wanted to know the topic of my speech. Would I 
need any audio-visual equipment? I replied I was re- 
ally busy and would get back to her, hoping to buy 
myself more time to not think about what I would say. 
On the positive side, I realized that it would nice 
to have some w^i* people with whom to discuss Carroll. 
You should know this about me: Whenever I work on 
a book, I tend to become obsessed. For months and 
months, I had been regaling my friends and family 
with stories of Carroll, anecdotes about the real Alice 
Liddell, and other pieces of information I was gather- 
ing in the course of my research. I was quoting Lewis 
Carroll all the time and manipulating quotes from Al- 
ice's Adventures in Wonderland into every conversation. 
Fortunately, the people in my life are either used to 
this behavior or just too kind to complain. And the 
moral of that is — "Birds of a feather flock together." 

In the past, I have given many lectures. I had a 
short stint as a stand-up comic, though I was not very 
good at it, and I've done a lot of television and radio 
promoting books I have published. I always thought 
it was something of a paradox that authors are re- 
quired to promote their work in nonprint media. 
Writers work mostly in solitude and have skills that 
are totally the opposite of what it takes to be perky 
on the Today show. One of my publishers actually sent 
me to a media consultant who trained me to do in- 
terviews on radio and television. She charged $600 
an hour (the publisher paid) and said things like, 
"Always sit up straight" and "Look the interviewer in 
the eye" — advice that my mom handed out for free. 
But, never mind, my point is that over the years I've 

learned to look up, speak nicely, and not twiddle my 
fingers all the time. 

Still, I must admit I was intimidated by the 
thought of speaking to the members of the LCSNA. 
I imagined a room full of serious, scholarly men and 
women who rarely cracked a smile and spent their 
free time analyzing plot lines from Sylvie and Bruno 
and speaking "Jabberwocky" to each other. I didn't 
want to go among mad people, and I was sure every- 
one there would be mad. I even imagined an audi- 
ence dressed in waistcoats and straw boaters — a room 
full of serious Carollians looking for mistakes in my 
presentation. "It is wrong from beginning to end," 
they would murmur to each other while I spoke. At 
the end of my lecture, Angelica would stand up and 
proclaim, 'You don't know much, and that's a fact!" 

Oh my fur and whiskers! She'll get me executed, 
as sure as ferrets are ferrets! 

You should know this about me: I grapple with in- 
security on every project I take on. In the early 1980s, 
my agent, Lena Tabori, got me a writingjob for Turner 
Publishing. Ted Turner had just purchased the MOM 
library, and his publishing company wanted to pro- 
duce books that utilized photos from the collection. 
Lena sold them the idea of a book about lovers on 
the big screen, and then after I pulled together a list 
of about 150 movies that featured popular screen 
couples, she sold me as the author. Turner sent me 
a contract, a nice fat advance, and 150 video tapes. 
(Oh, the '80s were good times for writers!) 

I looked at my rough outline of movie titles and 
panicked. Who was 1 to write this book? I had not 
gone to film school. I had never written about the 
movies. I sat at my desk and could not write a word for 
three weeks. I called Lena and told her I had to get 
out of the contract. I couldn't do this. I didn't even 
know where to start. I suggested that we return the 
advance, which, naturally, as my agent, she thought 
was ridiculous. 

Lena said, "Well, darling, why don't you start by 
watching the movies?" 

In other words. Begin at the beginning . . . and go 
on till you come to the end: then stop. That thought 
had never occurred to me. 1 followed her suggestion 
and, after watching three or four films, figured out 
how to write the book. 


All Things Alice. 

Linda Sunshine at the Fresno meeting. 

Now I think of Lena's advice whenever I am fac- 
ing a new project. I consider what a great girl I am. I 
consider what a long way I've come. I consider what 
o'clock it is. I consider anything and I don't cry. 

I started All Things Alicehy reading everything I 
could find by and about Lewis Carroll. That took a 
while because a lot has been written both by Carroll 
and about him. (By the way, past issues of your splen- 
didly written Knight Letter -were extremely helpful in 
my research.) 

In the end, I decided to leave the scholarship 
to the scholars. What I wanted to illustrate were the 
poems I loved the most, the quotations that made me 
laugh out loud and the historical facts about Charles 
L. Dodgson's life and his transformation into Lewis 
Carroll that revealed some insight into his genius. 
I concentrated on pulling excerpts from Carroll's 
poems, letters, and prose that most appealed to me. 
I did the same with the articles written about Carroll 
and, in the end, had more than 500 excerpts that I 
truly loved. I was proud of my book but still nervous 
about how it would play to a group of dedicated Car- 

My fears dissolved in the lobby of the Picadilly 
Hotel in Fresno, California, on Friday night. We gath- 
ered there to carpool to Angelica's home, and every- 
one I met was friendly and welcoming. There was not 
a straw boater or waistcoat in sight. During a lovely 
evening (and a wonderful dinner) sitting outside by 
Angelica's pool, we talked politics, kids, movies, al- 
most everything but Lewis Carroll. We didn't leave 
any of the conversation to the pudding. I thought, 
gee, these people say what they mean and mean what 
they say. And they like to laugh a lot. 

The next day we met at the University for a day 
of speeches, book buying, and an endless group walk 
to find the venue where luncheon was being served. 
Everybody said, "Come on!" I was never so ordered 
about before, in all my life, never! But, I didn't re- 
ally mind, by then I felt that I was among friends; I 
couldn't deny that, even if I tried with both hands. 

For my speech in Fresno, I was happy to discover 
that my PowerPoint® presentation actually worked 
and I was able to show my favorite illustrations from 
the book. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland \\o\d% an ut- 
terly unique place in the annals of book illustration. 
The book went out of the copyright in 1907, and 
almost every great children's book artist jumped at 
the chance to illustrate Carroll's timeless story. (And 
every book publisher in the U.K. and the U.S. was 
eager to add this bestselling, royalty-free book to their 
list.) Won<i^/an<i represents a wonderful challenge to 
an artist, as the text itself is relatively free of descrip- 
tive copy. Carroll worked with Tenniel in developing 
the illustrations and, even today, most of us think of 
Tenniel's drawings when we think o{ Alice. But, if you 
jvist read the text, you will find that Carroll never ac- 
tually describes any of his characters. So illustrators 
are really free to use their wildest imagination to cre- 
ate their very own Wonderland. 

For my book, I was somewhat limited in that I 
only used illustrators who were published previous to 
the mid-1 930s and were now out of copyright. Even 
within those limitations, though, I was able to include 
the fabulous works of such artists as Arthur Rackham, 
Jessie Wilcox Smith, Charles Folkard, Gwynedd Hud- 
son, Mabel Lucie Atwell, and Bessie Pease Guttman, 
to name only a few. 


Working on All Things Alice was particularly ex- 
citing because I visited Oxford and immersed myself 
in Carroll's environment. I was lucky enough to meet 
Alan White, who took Tim Shaner, my very talented 
book designer, and me on a fascinating and enlight- 
ening tour of Oxford. We had a grand time walking 
the grounds and the halls of the university and tour- 
ing the museum where the remains of the Dodo are 
displayed. So many out-of-the-way things happened 
in Oxford that I began to think that very few things 
were impossible, at least until I started to work on or- 
ganizing the 500 excerpts. 

Not long ago, I published All Things Oz and it was 
easy to organize that material. There were four main 
characters, well, five if you count Toto (and I did). 
Then there was a chapter on the Wizard himself, an- 
other on the witches, a final one on "Life in Oz," and, 
voila, the book was organized. 

Every time I tried to do the same thing with Alice, 
I would fall deeper and deeper into the rabbit hole. 
Aside from Alice herself, none of the other charac- 
ters hang around long enough in the books to fill 
an entire chapter in my book. Then I came across a 
poem that would prove to be the key to solving my 
organizational problems. 

He thought he saw a Banker's Clerk 

Descending from the bus: 
He looked again, and found it was 

A Hippopotamus: 
"If this should stay to dine," he said, 

"There won't be much for us!" 

Oh, I thought. Dr. Seuss meets Shel Silverstein! 

Why was I trying to impose some kind of logic 
on Lewis Carroll? His very brilliance was the way he 
ditched logic or, I should say, created his own rules. 
"Beware of logic," C. F. Kettering once said, "It is an 
organized way of going wrong with confidence."' 

So, along with scholarship, I threw logic to the 
wind and pulled together an outline that, like the 
verse just quoted, was seemingly illogical but made 
total sense, in a CarroUian way, at least. 

For my lecture, I tried to explain how I organized 
my book while, at the same time, I showed the best of 
the art that I had selected. I fear that I spent far too 
much of my time saying, "This is one of my favorite 
pieces of art." So many of the pieces are my favorites. 
I fear that I did not spend enough time preparing, 
left out many things I wanted to say, and 
went off on a few unnecessary tangents. 
You must excuse me, I mean well, but I 

can't help saying foolish things as a general rule. I 
beg your pardon — even though it isn't respectable to 

Anyway, everything you need to know is in All 
Things Alice for all to read. Besides, I was anxious to 
get off the podium and join the audience so that I 
could hear Robert Sabuda's speech, which proved to 
be an utterly fascinating look at how pop-up books 
are created and produced. 

In the end, perhaps the best parts of the week- 
end were a charming show we saw on Saturday night 
performed by a group of talented local youngsters 
who sang two songs from their own A/ic^ production, 
and a look at the Alice collection housed in the UC 
Fresno library. No, on second thought — and "Second 
thoughts are best," as Carroll wrote to Xie Kitchen on 
February 15, 1880 — the very best part was the warm 
reception that I received and all the new friends 1 
made who, the last time I saw them, were trying to 
stuff the Dormouse into the teapot. 

I look forward to the next LCSNA meeting. In 
fact, I plan on becoming a full-fledged member since 
I now know that all it takes to join is an irreverent 
sense of humor and a love of Lewis Carroll — and that 
I don't have to wear a waistcoat or straw boater to the 
meetings. You should know this about me: I don't 
look good in straw. 

The exquisitely charming AW Things Alice is published 
by Clarkson Potter ($30). Along ivith the expected (and 
quite unexpected) illustrators of the Mice books, one finds 
pictures of bathing machines, movie stills, album covers, 
advertisements, Dodgson watercolors, and so forth. Aside 
from the many quotes from the canonical books, there are 
excerpts from letters and movies, and words from Stephanie 
Lovett, fohn Lennon, Virginia Woolf Marshall McLuhan, 
the head of General Motors Research Laboratory, etc. Add 
to that recipes, timelines, letters, and backmatter (Alice in 
films, cyberspace, stores, Carroll societies) one could not ask 
for a better or more colorful introduction to the CarroUian 
world for all ages — and a few surprises for us initiates as 

Clarkson Potter has also published an associated 
spiral-bound journal ($11), a foldout postcard set ($12), 
and small notecards ($12); Welcome Books has published a 
2005 wall calendar ($13). 

' Richard M. Ritland, A Search for Meaning in Nature (Mountain 
View, CA: Pacific Press Publishing, 1970), 40. 


On March 16, 1905, shortly after 
Theodore Roosevek's second 
inauguration, Edith WTiarton and 
her husband were asked to dinner 
at the WTiite House. 
The moment he spotted her, 
Roosevelt thundered: "Well, I 
am glad to welcome to the MTiite 
House some one to whom 1 
can quote 'The Hunting of the 
Snark' without being asked what 
I mean!" Apparently no one in 
his administration had read Lewis 
Carroll. Only a few days before, 
Roosevelt said, he had invoked 
Carroll's poem to remark to 
the Secretary of the Navy, "Mr. 
Secretary, what I say three times 
is true!" only to be met by the 
aggrieved reply: "Mr. President, it 
would never for a moment have 
occurred to me to impugn your 
veracity." ~ R. W. B. Lewis, Edith 
Wharton: A Biography (Harper 
ColHns, 1975) 


Space is nothing but an 
entanglement of strings, a vast 
Cloud of Unknowing, swirling with 
visible matter and dark matter and 
antimatter, where light disappears 
inside black holes and where 
impossible Lewis Carroll-type 
things happen to the laws of 
physics. ~ Daniel Libeskind, 
Breaking Ground (Riverhead, 2004) 

Every voice along the shoreline 
Standing still within time 
Spinning unresolved the 

As each season passes. 

Through wonderland and 

The secret garden shires 

beckons you. 
Gentle flower, don't fade away. 
Sweet innocence they're 


In the faith of golden dreams. 

Celine Dion, "Prayer" from the 
2002 CD A New Day Has Come 


Answer to 

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The earliest Japanese translation 
of Sylvie and Bruno has recently 
been discovered by Kazunari 
Takaya, a member of the 
LCSJapan. (The first translation of 
any Carroll book into Japanese was 
Through the Looking-Glass, serialized 
in the magazine Shonen Sekai [Boys' 
World] beginning in April 1899.) 
Mr. Takaya has written a series 
of articles, "Alice in Japan," in 
English, for the LCSJ's magazine 
The Looking-Glass Letter, and in the 
sixth installment {LGL 77:4), he 
tells the tale. He happened to find 
in a library the September 1923 
issue of Kin no Hoshi ( The Golden 
Star) — formerly Kin no Fune ( The 
Golden Ship) — ^which contained a 
translation by Toyo Hisamatsu of 
Sylvie and Bruno Concluded {Shiruvii 
Monogatari [ The Sylvie Story] ) , 
illustrated by Kansho Takabatake. 
Further detective work revealed 
that parts of Sylvie and Bruno had 
been published in that magazine 
earlier that year, perhaps as early 
as January. He is actively seeking 
other issues of that rare magazine, 
and further information on the 

jas «^d 


». .1 » £ c • -^^' 

The Golden Ship. 


A poster for the American Library 
Association's Banned Books 
Week (September 25-October 2) 
proclaimed "There's no rabbit in 
this wonderland? Go ask Alice." 
It listed "The Most Frequently 
Challenged Books of 2003" 
according to their Office for 
Intellectual Freedom, and at the 
top of the list was a shocker: "the 
Alice series, for sexual content, 
using offensive language, and 
being unsuited to age group." 
Then Go Ask Alice "by Anonymous, 
for drugs" came in at number six. 
Fortunately, a bit of investigation 
found that "the Alice series" 
to which they refer is Phyllis 
Reynolds Naylor's, not Carroll's. 




Frank Beddor, actor and producer 
of the "gross-out" movie Something 
About Mary, said his novel The 
Looking Glass Wars (Egmont Books, 
2004) was prompted by his hatred 
of the "terrible girls' book" he 
was forced to read by his mother 
and grandmother as a child, so 
he has turned it into "a dark and 
violent tale of murder and war." 
Beddor said: "After a stunning 
discovery and exhaustive research, 
I have unmasked what I believe is 
the ultimate literary lie, a twisted 
fabrication that has existed for 
nearly 1 50 years. Lewis Carroll 
did not tell Alice Liddell the story 
of Wonderland; she told him. And 
Alice Liddell was not who she 
appeared to be. ... She was really 
Alyss Heart, an orphan 

whose story is much nastier than 
the sanitized version." In this 
rewriting, also to be made into a 
film and games, the Cheshire Cat 
is a vicious assassin. It is the first 
book of a threatened trilogy. "One 
of the worst books I've ever read." 
~ Will Brooker. Currently available 


Book illustrator and artist 
Jonathan Barry specializes in 
painting famous scenes from 
literature, in the main classics 
such as Alice's Adventures in 
Wonderland, Peter Pan, The Wind in 
the Willows, The Lord of the Rings, 
and other such novels. He is 
currently commissioned by the 
Irish government to illustrate 
eight classic fairytales (such 
as "Rapunzel," and "Sleeping 
Beauty") to be published in the 
Irish language. His original oils 
are sought by collectors and are 
sold through Sotheby's, London. 
It has long been his ambition to 
have his Alice paintings published 
as an illustrated edition, and he 
is keen to find a publisher in the 
US to make this a reality. The 38- 
year-old artist works and lives in 
Ireland. Visit www.jonathanbarry. 
net and contact him at Jonathan or write to him 
at The Lodge, Ashbrook, Howth 
Road, Clontarf, Dublin 3, Ireland. 

''Jonathan Harry 2()U5 




Bryan Talbot's Alice in Sunderland 
will be an approximately 300-page 
graphic novel with the themes 
of storytelling, history, and myth 
in a form described as a "dream 
documentary." It is not one story 
but literally dozens, short and 
long, the central spines being 
the history of Sunderland and 
the story of Lewis Carroll and 
Alice Liddell, both of whom had 
connections with the city and 
surrounding area. It is planned 
for serial publication shortly, and 
the full book is due out in a year. 
Meanwhile, one can keep abreast 
of progress at www.bryan-talbot. 

it's really bad dad 

Sarah Adams 
Bad Alice, ]ean Ure, Hodder 
Children's Books, 2003, ages 10 
and up 

Visiting his Nan while his mother 
and sister are in the United States 
for an operation, Duffy expects 
that his "touch of the Tourette's" 
will make his summer a lonely 
one. However, he and the girl 
next door, Alice, quickly become 
friends when he finds her hiding 
in a "rabbit hole" (an earthen 
den abandoned by a fox) in the 
garden. The adopted daughter of 
a beloved local clergyman, Alice 
has a reputation as a liar and an 
ungrateful troublemaker. Because 
she ignores Duffy's speech pathol- 
ogy and physical tics, he deliber- 
ately chooses to ignore the warn- 
ings about Alice. 

As the summer progresses, 
Alice introduces Duffy to Alice in 
Wonderland, her favorite book, 
and shares her own stories based 
on Lewis Carroll's books. WTiile 
secretly of the opinion that Alice 
is old-fashioned and silly, Duffy is 
amazed and disturbed by Alice's 
own stories that hint at sexual 
abuse. Wlien Alice stops speaking 
after being punished for a lock 

Duffy has helped install on her 
bedroom door, he realizes she 
needs someone to help her out of 
her situation, or she will be lost in 
the "dark wood" forever 

While never saying more than 
that Alice's father is "touching" 
her (this is, after all, a children's 
book), Jean Ure does an excellent 
job of exploring both the dynam- 
ics of an abusive household and 
how difficult it is to help someone 
in that situation. The character de- 
velopment takes this book beyond 
what could have easily been the lit- 
erary equivalent of an after-school 
special, but what really makes it 
stand out is the inclusion of Alice's 
story. Its eight chapters and poems 
interspersed through the book 
give increasingly blatant clues as to 
what is happening to Alice: 

"Beware the jab-jab thing, my 

The sword that stabs, the fangs 

that bite. 
The greedy grabbing hands 

that come 
In the darkness of the night." 

Ure does a nice job of ending 
the book as well, assuring us that 
Alice is safe while leaving many of 
our (and Duffy's) questions unan- 
swered, as is so often the case in 
real life. 



Sarah Adams 

Madeleine is Sleeping, Sarah Shun- 
Lien Bynum, Harcourt, 2004 

In short, and to set the matter 
to rest, Madeleine is Sleeping 
has nothing to do with Alice in 
Wonderland, Lewis Carroll, the 
Kitchin children, or even St. 
George. It can be assumed that 
the hardcover jacket designer for 
this book had some reason for 
choosing Carroll's photograph 
"St. George and the Dragon," but 
that reason is as unintelligible as 
the book itself. Although the story 
centers around a young girl within 
whose dreams the story takes 
place, Madeleine dreams of 

a surreal provincial France rather 
than a fantastic Wonderland. 
With its inclusion of pedophiles, 
carnival freaks, and mental 
institutions, the idea seems to 
have been to create a book both 
shocking and entrancing, but, 
unfortunately, with its disjointed 
plot and minimal character 
development, it is just not very 

Madeleine is one of the extremely 
controversial finalists for the 2004 
National Book Award in Fiction. 
The controversy is due to the fact that 
the five books had a combined sale of 
around six thousand copies, and that 
each is written very minimalistically, 
in very much the style of some of the 
judges. The title might hearken back 
to the dreaming heroine of Keats' poem 
"The Eve of St. Agnes. " 



Anamorphic artist Kelly Houle 
has two brilliantly astonishing new 
works. Her "Portrait of Lewis Car- 
roll" {KL 64:20 & insert) now is 
folded up into a handmade book 
with its own built-in mirror (lim- 
ited edition of 350, signed and 
numbered, $175). She has also 
completed a handmade movable 
(pop-up and paper-engineered) 
book, Wliy Is a Raven Like a Writing 
Desk?, in an edition often. These 
sold out immediately, but she is 
planning a second printing, which 
will consist of twenty copies, as well 
as a sequel. Why Is a Writing Desk 
Like a Raven?, which will consist of 
thirty copies. (One can currently 
get a handmade pop-up folio in 
a vellum envelope for $20.) The 
book is in an exhibit of artist 
books called "Stand and Deliver," 
in conjunction with a conference 
of the Movable Book Society in 
San Diego. The exhibit opened 
in Brookfield, Connecticut, and 
will travel to Boca Raton, Denver, 
and Chicago in 2005. See their site 
for a catalog and tour dates: www. Kelly's site 
is and she 
can be reached at 

43; 15454 E. Syca- 
more Dr., Fountain Hills AZ 
85268; (480) 991-2920. 


In His Own Accoi nt 


Jenny Wool/ 

In 1999, 1 discovered C. L. Dodg- 
son's bank account lying utterly 
forgotten in a private archive in 
Barclay's Bank in England. Con- 
tained in a series of enormous 
hand-written ledgers, it runs from 
1856, when he was twenty-four, 
right through to 1900, two years 
after he died at the age of sixty-six. 

The long lists of names and 
figures, when investigated, reveal 
many details of his life: what he 
spent on printing his pamphlets, 
how much he paid his washer- 
woman, the price of his ticket for 
the 1860 "Darwin" debate between 
Wilberforce and Huxley, and the 
sort of fees he charged for provid- 
ing photographs of people's fami- 
lies and children. 

It also paints a fascinating, and 
at times unexpected, picture of 
an interesting man. Dodgson's 
attitudes to money veered wildly 
between rigid control and free 
abandon. His financial situation 
sometimes hovered on the brink 
of catastrophe, yet he was gener- 
ous to a fault, took his responsi- 
bilities to his family very seriously, 
and obviously played an important 
role in their lives — particularly 
the lives of his seven sisters. He 
gave liberally to charities, some 
of which dealt with matters that 
make it plain that Dodgson was no 
innocent and (as has become in- 
creasingly obvious in recent years) 
no closet pedophile either. His 
attitudes were a curious mixture of 
bohemian and moralistic, liberal 
and conservative; his religious 
faith shines through all. The ac- 

count rims unbroken through the 
"missing diary period" of 1858-62, 
casting light on Dodgson's early 
adult life and also hinting, intrigu- 
ingly, at hitherto unsuspected 
events and relationships about 
which we currently have no fur- 
ther information. 

Even in his lifetime the account 
would have been a secret between 
Dodgson and the bank — but now, 
as the only major document relat- 
ing to him that has never been 
tampered with or made public, 
it is unique. Entirely factual, it is 
also open to interpretation and 
further study, and offers a vital, 
uncensored glimpse of the real 
man behind the mythical "Lewis 

Lewis Carroll in His Own Account 
is a transcription of the ledger, 
with a full introduction and over- 
view, a list and description of the 
individuals named, and details of 
charities that Dodgson supported, 
where known. Published at £25 
(US$47) each for the regular edi- 
tion, or £35 ($65) each for the 
limited edition of sixty, printed 
on cream paper and individually 
numbered and signed; 72 pages, 
approximately 8 by 1 1.5 inches, 
softcover. Shipping to U.S. is £4.80 
($9) surface mail, £8.50 ($16) air- 
mail. Payment by sterling cheque 
in U.K. pounds, or by 

USPS money order in U.S. dol- 
lars: please make payable to "J 
Woolf." Published by Jabber- 
wock Press; www.jabberwock.;; 
+ (44)207 372 3054 fax; 17 Can- 
field Gardens, London NW6 3JP, 

- m 


It is indeed an occasion for 
celebration when an illustrated 
Jabbenoocky can cause the 
present writer, who has seen 
so many hundreds of visual 
interpretations of this poem, to 
proclaim joyfully, "Here, at last, 
a revelation!" Stephane Jorisch 
has accomplished this in an 
elegant edition published in the 
Visions in Poetry series from Kids 
Can Press. Haunting, enigmatic, 
apocalyptic, provocative, visionary, 
painful, and personal, the colored 
drawings draw from a deep 
wellspring of inspiration and 
conviction and not, as have so 
many of their precursors, purely 
from Mr. Tenniel. Bringing this 
poem afresh into the dystopian 
present, with much to say about 
politics, warfare, religion, familial 
obligation, Big Brother, and the 
pervasiveness of media, it is worth 
looking at time and again. In 
creating a stark, surreal world in 
which an old soldier sends his son 
to kill an ill-defined enemy, Jorisch 
has transformed the poem into a 
universal meditation on nonsense 
and insanity, seen with fresh eyes. 



Canollian Notes 


A scrapbook that appears to have 
been kept by Carroll between the 
years 1855 and 1872 containing 
approximately 130 items includ- 
ing newspaper clippings, illustra- 
tions, and photographs, is now 
available to us all. It was sold after 
Carroll's death in 1898 to Frederic 
L. Huidekoper, an undergraduate 
at Oxford, at the Holywell Music 
Rooms; was "discovered" in 1985 
by Edward Wakeling — through an 
entry in the National Union Cata- 
log — to be in the Library of Con- 
gress; was announced to us at the 
spring 2002 gathering {KL 69:2); 
and was the subject of an article 
by August Imholtz (XL 69:16). It 
has now been completely digitized 
in both high-resolution image 
and scannable text formats, and 
resides at the Library of Congress' 
Rare Book & Special Collections 
Division's Global Gateway Web site 

Mr. Wakeling has also prepared 
an introduction to the scrapbook, 
a timeline of events for the years 
that Carroll added to his scrap- 
book, a timeline of Carroll's life, 
a list of Carroll's key works, a 
portrait gallery of people whose 
names appear in the scrapbook, 
and, with August Imholtz, notes 
for each entry. 

It is a striking presentation. 

Bernstein: An American Life," this 
fall ( 
The program concluded (on De- 
cember 4) with listing the things 
buried with the great composer 
and conductor: a baton, a copy of 
Mahler's Fifth Symphony, a piece 
of amber {Bernstein is the German 
word for "amber"), a lucky penny, 
and a copy of Alice's Adventures in 



In the notorious Bulwer-Lytton 
Fiction Contest sponsored by San 
Jose State University, in which 
deliberately bad writing is cele- 
brated, a Dishonorable Mention in 
Children's Literature (2004) went 
to Cory Gano of Camas, Washing- 
ton, for "As he entered the room 
within which so many a wild night 
of their sweltering love affair had 
been spent, the WTiite Rabbit re- 
garded her with benevolent eyes, 
her posture such that he suspected 
something was wrong, but before 
he could speak Alice unburied her 
face from her trembling hands 
and between her intense sobs he 
made out the words, 'I'm late... 
I'm late.'" 


"Fresh Air" on NPR presented an 
eleven-part series, "Leonard 



A new cinematic "adaptation," 
called Living Neon Dreams is due 
out this year (2005). Written and 
directed by Jeremy Tarr and star- 
ring Antonia Bernath as Alice and 
Marilyn Manson as the Queen of 
Hearts, with Daryl Hannah, Jona- 

than Pryce, and Nia Vardalos, it 
is described by the producer, Ar- 
clight Films, as "a phantasmagoric 
live action special effects fantasy 
with the surreal qualities of Felli- 
ni's 8'/23.nd the humor and teen- 
age angst of Fast Times at Ridgemont 
High. Although inspired by Lewis 
Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, this 
is not the story you grew up with. 
The story is told by Alice, an av- 
erage teenage girl. Her sense of 
alienation pushes her from living 
in the confusing world of Malibu, 
California to living on the edge of 
Wonderland. Abruptly she's swept 
away to the strange and fantastical 
Wonderland where she's wrongly 
accused of murder, relentlessly 
pursued by her would-be captors. 
In the process she comes face to 
face with her life, her dreams, and 
herself in a haunting, psychologi- 
cal, psychedelic, operatic, cin- 
ematic dream/nightmare." Eheu. 



"The opiate-influenced writing of 
Lewis Carroll is the inspiration for 
a new theater collaboration bridg- 
ing Lawrence and Kansas City tal- 
ents. The Borograve Theatre Com- 
pany found its name in Through the 
Looking Glass, in which a creature 
called a borograve — a cross be- 
tween a corkscrew and a badger — 
lives in the grasses around a sun- 
dial. The troupe's premiere show. 
The Art of Conquering Aj a, is written 
by Paige McLemore and features 
as its heroine a former art student 
and kleptomaniac whose stress is 


elevated by a visit from her Vegas 
lounge-singer father. The com- 
pany promises cacophony, chaos 
and an intentional salute to the 
Coen brothers. Nov. 5 and 6 at the 
Ecumenical Christian Ministries." 

"This breathless scrambling for 
forgiveness seemed to me almost 
mad, Mad Hatterish, here on the 
riverbank where Lewis Carroll, the 
dean of Christ Church, had once 
entertained the darling objects of 
his own obsessions." ~ Ian McE- 
wan, Enduring Love (Talese, 1998). 

"What do you get when you 
transpose the cut-and-paste 
pastiche of modern pop art and 
the Doctor Demento kiddie acid 
trip of Alice in Wonderland onto 
old-skool pop-up illustrated 
books?" ~ from a review of J. Otto 
Seibold's book \n S. F. Weekly. 

"Who was Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson, the pioneering 
photographer, Oxford don and 
mathematician when, writing as 
Lewis Carroll, he gave the world 
the Jabberwocky, Tweedledum 
and Tweedledee, the Red Queen, 
..." ~ back cover blurb for Morton 
Cohen's Lewis Carroll: A Biography, 
in the 1995 Papermac edition 

TheJabberwock"y"? Oh, why? 

"In this version Arthur's knights 
are a ragged band of foreign con- 
scripts stationed in the shadow of 
Hadrian's Wall, where they fight 
an occasional skirmish with the 
pesky Woads, who gyre and gimble 
in the wabe." ~ A. O. Scott, review- 
ing the new movie King Arthur for 
The New York Tm^5,July 7, '04. 

"...It will ... contain more than a 
dash of Lewis Carroll, and Alice 
down the rabbit hole in Wonder- 
land. 'Beware thejabberwock, my 
son!...'" ~ Daniel Libeskind, Break- 
ing Ground (Riverhead, 2004). 

"'Alice in Wonderland' is one 
of the most famous children's 
books written by Lewis Carroll, 
and her life and work will be 
celebrated and discussed Saturday 
at The Lewis Carroll Society of 
North America's fall meeting." ~ 
The Collegian (CSU Fresno), 22 
October 2004. 

"The Red Queen as a man? It's 
mad, I tell you. But Walter Hill, di- 
rector of the Flint Youth Theatre's 
upcoming production of Alice in 
Wonderland, says it makes perfect 
sense because the queen looks 
masculine in drawings by Sir John 
Tenniel, the original illustrator of 
Lewis Carroll's book. 

She's also portrayed that way in 
the Disney cartoon," he added. ... 
While other productions combine 
elements from Alice in Wonderland 
and Through the Looking-Glass, this 
one doesn't." ~ Carol Azizian from 
the Flint [Michigan] Journal. 

Really ? Tell me again about the Fled 
Queen. And being a male in the Disney 
version might be news to Vema Felton, 
the actress luho voiced her. 

Perusing an online database 
which apparently had limited its 
book titles to 21 characters, I was 
startled by the abbreviated "Alice 
Through the Loo." 

Pepper . . . and Salt 


"Contains corn syrup, sugar, water, po- 
tassium sorbate, diglycerides ... ." 


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Volume 8 of the LCS (UK) 
edition of Dodgson's diaries, 
edited and with notes by 
Edward Wakehng, was pub- 
hshed in December 2004. To 
order, visit lewiscarrollsociety. The LCS Web site 
sponsors, Aznet Online Ltd., 
have a small but very unusual 
selection of CarroUian items 
for sale in their online store, While you're 
there, be sure to check out 
the new Draiun into Wonder- 
land (PHTopics, 2004, £25) by 
Brian Partridge, whose charmingly 
detailed drawings of the Wonder- 
land characaters have pervaded 
his career. 

A sweet, yet fresh Alice's Adventures 
in Wonderland (Sterling/Chrysa- 
lis [U.K.], 2004) is illustrated in 
vibrant, charming watercolor- 
and-pencils by Michael Foreman, 
based in part on Dodgson's pho- 
tographs of Alice, Dean Liddell 
(as "Father William), and Carroll 
himself (as "the young man"). 

Doiun the Crawfish Hole (Pelican, 
2004), an abridged retelling with a 
Cajun motif written and illustrated 
by Wes Thomas, tracks Maurice 
through the bayous of Louisiana 
as he follows a blue crawfish, 
encounters the Toad Queen, and 
so on. Mainly for kids. 

Once upon a Time in Great Britain: A 
Travel Guide to the Sights and Sounds 
of Your Favorite Children 's Stories (St. 
Martin's Press, 2004) by Melanie 
Wentz, a travel guide to real places 
associated with fantasy literature, 
contains a chapter on Carroll, of 

Looking Glasses Cjf Neverlands: 
Lacan, Desire, ^ Subjectivity in Chil- 
dren 's Literature, by Karen Coats, 
(University of Iowa Press, 2004). 
"This groundbreaking study intro- 
duces and explores Lacan 's com- 
plex theories of subjectivity and 
desire through close readings of 
canonical children's books." 

Children at play 
galumph. Joyful 
people galumph. To 
galumph expresses 

i^/'/'Of/r Off/* r7^at*-^/aiiQ 

Science Vb-5^byJon Scieszka (Pen- 
guin/Viking, 2004) offers what the 
title says — in a humorous way, for 
the nine-to-twelve-year-old set. It 
includes "Gobblegooky," a parody 
of you-know. 

Poems of Sleep and Dreams (Every- 
man's Library, 2004), edited by 
Peter Washington, has a Dodgson 
photo of a sleeping Xie Kitchen 
on the cover. 

In A. W. F. Edward's new book. 
Cogwheels of the Mind: The Story of 
Venn Diagrams (Johns Hopkins, 
2004), is a very lucid description 
of Dodgson's diagrams for multi- 
literal propositions, first described 
by him in part II of Symbolic Logic 
(1896), and not available until 
W. W. Hartley's publication of 
them in 1977. 


The September/October 2004 
cover of Horn Book Magazine fea- 
tures Tenniel's White Rabbit on 
the cover and the article "The 
Zena Sutherland Lecture: We're 
All Mad Here" by Natalie Babbitt. 

A review in Johns Hopkins Magazine 
(November '04) Vol. 56 no. 
5, mentions that Kay Redfield 
Jamison in her new book. Exub- 
erance: The Passion for Life (Knopf, 
2004) , loves the word galumphing 
because, "according to the OED, 
Lewis Carroll's coinage from 
the Snark [iic] conveys a sense 
of 'marching on exultingly with 
irregular bounding movements.' 

The September 2004 
edition of Book and 
Magazine Collector, no. 
246, from the U.K., 
has a section entitled 
"Mad about Alice." 
Articles include 
"Lewis Carroll at 
Auction," "Martin 
Gardner Speaks," and 
"Complete [sic] Price 
Guide." Alice, the Duchess, and a 
flamingo appear on the cover. 

Selections from a 1990 interview 
with Martin Gardner were re- 
printed in celebration of his 90th 
birthday in Focus, the newsletter of 
the Mathematical Association of 
America, Vol. 24 no. 8, November 
2004. He speaks of how he jumped 
to Scientific American right from 
Humpty Dumpty, a children's maga- 



The Lewis Carroll Society of 
Japan, founded in 1994, now has 
a Web site. The page in English is 

Original artworks and a discus- 
sion of Alice as a "goth" icon at 
nity/alice_gothica/. Worth going 

A quite dark adaptation at wwav. 

An "Alice Insanity Dress" at www. Click on "cos- 

"Alice in WonderBra," a costuming 
extravaganza, at www.guntherand- 

A short interactive version of J. 
Otto Seibold's popup Alice di wvav. 
Alice. swf. 


Serious techno-geeks should 
check out Mike Fahy's clever 
Macromedia Flash ActionScript 
"Jabberwocky" at w\vw.turdhead. 
com/index. php?p=21. Available 
on T-shirts, posters, etc. 

Animated clip art Alice images are 
available for a fee at www.anima- 
tion Search on "Won- 

Some creepy Alice-inspired desk- 
top icons on 
icons-mac can be downloaded 
within the "Little Dream 2" set by 
Daniel Goffin. For Macs only. 

A fine portrait of Lewis Carroll to 
be used as an icon for Mac System 
10 can be downloaded from lewis- 


On November 6th Dr. Francine 
Abeles gave an invited paper titled 
"An Episode in the Early Develop- 
ment of Automated De-duction" 
at the Eastern Sectional Meeting 
of the American Math-ematical 
Society held at the Uni-versity of 
Pittsburgh, in which she discussed 
Dodgson's Symbolic Logic. 

The LCSCanada met on Novem- 
ber 27 in the Toronto Public Li- 
brary, and heard Dayna McCaus- 
land's talk on "W. T. Stead and His 
Books for the Bairns' and one by 
David Demchuck, author oi Alice 
in Cyberspace (KL 72:46). 


"Masterpieces of American Jew- 
elry" at the American Folk Art 
Museum in New York (through 
January, 2005) displayed a 1939 
Disney charm bracelet by Cartier 
depicting the Three Little Pigs 
and the Wolf, Mickey Mouse, and 
sixteen Alice figures based on the 
Tenniel drawings, indicating that 
eleven years before his animated 
feature, Disney was claiming Alice 
as his own. The exhibit moves on 
to London, Moscow, and Paris. A 
catalog (Running Press, 2004) is 
available. Seen also in an 

advertising supplement in The New 
Yorker, September 27 '04. 

Designer Jun Takahashi of Under- 
cover presented his spring 2005 
fashion collection in Paris in Octo- 
ber. He described it as an homage 
to Czech Surrealist filmmaker Jan 
Svankmajer and his Wonderland 
film. Models wore enormous hir- 
sute globs of dozens of wigs and 
hairpieces all mushed together. 
Pictures can be found at www. by searching 
for the article "Volumizers" (Octo- 
ber 7, '04). 

"Alice Shaw: Photographs, Draw- 
ings, Cheatings" at Gallery 6 in 
San Francisco (August, September, 
'04, included "Alice and Charles" 
(Dodgson), in watercolor, fabric, 
and carbon. 

The Oklahoma State University 
Library's Curriculum Materials 
Laboratory recently received a be- 
quest of a collection of CarroUian 
books and memorabilia from for- 
mer OSU Librarian Delia Thomas. 


Max Achtau's eighth-grade stu- 
dents at the Wellesley (MA) 
Middle School took first place in 
their division for performing Alice 
in Wonderland — in German! — at 
Mount Holyoke's German Drama 
Festival in April. 

The Flint (MI) Youth Theatre's 
production of Alice in Wonderland 
(July, August '04) was directed by 
Walter Hill. See also "Sic, Sic, Sic," 
p. 45. 

In Alice in Andersonville (a neigh- 
borhood in Chicago) in October, 
"Neo-Futurists," under the master- 
minding of Noelle Krimm, put on 
an interactive, mixed-media event, 
divvied up into nine segments and 
spread out over six venues, among 
which the audience walked. Each 
segment was directed by a differ- 
ent artist. 

Alice, a musical by William Wade 
and Frank Blocker, had a staged 
reading at the York Theatre Com- 

pany in New York City on Decem- 
ber 6. 

A "muscular, acrobatic, percussive, 
and dizzyingly playful" adaptation 
at the Lookingglass Theatre (in 
association with The Actors Gym- 
nasium) Feb. 2-Mar. 27, 2005 
in Chicago, www.lookingglass 

Alice Dawson's Alice, revealed, a 
one-woman show with a potpourri 
of music including art song, jazz, 
and musical theater at the Clark 
Studio Theater of Lincoln Center 
Institute in New York City, Feb. 16 
and 19. 

Wonderland, produced by Larry 
Wilson and playing in January at 
Sammy's Showroom at Harrah's in 
Reno, is a line-dancing, comedy, 
and magic extravaganza, more in 
tune with the Jefferson Airplane's 
version than Mr. Carroll's. 


The International Animated Film 
Society (ASIFA) Winsor McCay 
Award recipients for 2004 includ- 
ed Virginia Davis, Walt Disney's 
"Alice" from the 1920s live ac- 
tion/cartoon series. Davis has the 
distinction of being the Disney 
Studios' first star and now, its old- 
est surviving employee. 

Up in Canada, the 2004 Governor 
General's awards for English- 
language children's literature in 
the illustration category went to 
Stephane Jorisch for Jabberwocky. 
See p. 44. 

The Online Computer Library 
Center (OCLC) provides more 
than 50,000 libraries — in 84 coun- 
tries and territories around the 
world — with services to locate, ac- 
quire, catalog, lend, and preserve 
library materials. Their recently 
compiled list of the top 1000 titles 
owned by member libraries placed 
Alice's Adventures at number nine, 
right between Hamlet and Lord of 
the Rings. Looking-Glass came in at 
number 385. See 



Sotheby's November 25th 
"Victorian Pictures" sale L04132 
contained a Henry Holiday 
watercolor called "The Duet," a 
portrait of Xie Kitchin and his 
own daughter Winifrid. Estimated 
at £6-8,000, it sold for £10,200 

posium. For more information, 



Gwen Stefani has a new solo CD 
titled Love, Angel, Music, Baby and 
a single "What You Waiting For," 
which can be viewed on VHl, 
MTV, Yahoo, or AOL. "The song 
is about taking a chance and 
growing. The video is an Alice 
fantasia with very high production 
values, explosive color and quite 
the avalanche of imagery. The 
designers clearly had a blast." ~ 
Stephanie Lovett 

Michael Sirotta's 1997 children's 
musical based on Wonderland as a 
piano/vocal score (88 pages) and 
also on a digitally recorded CD 
in which the music is heard in a 
more orchestrated setting is avail- 
able upon request for $20. There 
are varying prices for purchase 
of the rights and performance 
materials, as well, home.earthlink. 

Patrick van Deurzen is composing 
a piece, "Eight Scenes from Alice," 
for the Netherlands Youth choir, 
which will be be premiered in May 
in Holland and in June in Japan 
during the World Choir Sym- 



New on DVD: Alice's Adventures 
In Wonderland (1972), the British 
musical version with Fiona 
Fullerton, Peter Sellers, etc.; 
Alice Through The Looking Glass 
(1999), the U. K. teleplay with 
Kate Beckinsale and Ian Holm; 
and Alice In Acidland (1968), a soft- 
porn "anti-"drug exploitation film 
that is so wretchedly unwatchable 
it doesn't even qualify as "campy." 
Aside from the title and a brief 
mention in the narration, it's not 
even relevant. 

A 2' high Jabberwock plush from 

County Hall Gallery in London 
houses the permanent "Dali Uni- 
verse" exhibition, with over 500 
of his works, including portfolios, 
drawings, lithographs, gold and 
glass objects, and so on. They have 
some of Dali's Alice sculptures for 
sale. Contact James HoUingworth,; 
+020 7450 7620; +020 7620 3120 

An "heirloom" Alice ches?, set, 
made in England of handpainted 
stone and resin in an elegant pre- 
sentation box. The king is 3'/4". 
$235 from the Zebra Hall Col- 
lection;; 800.834- 

A comic book series, The OZ/Won- 
derland Chronicles by Ben Avery 
(writer) and Casey Heying (artist), 
is coming out from Buy Me Toys. 
Com in South Bend, Indiana. Con- 
sisting of a preview issue, with five 
more forthcoming over the next 
few years, it is the story of Dorothy 
and Alice, now college students liv- 
ing in modern-day Chicago, enter- 
ing upon an adventure that takes 
them back into the realms of their 
childhoods, www.; 
(574) 271-TOYS. 

Lullaby: Wisdom Seeker #\ is the 
first of a four-issue comic book 
mini-series by Mike S. Miller and 
Hector Sevilla (Image Comics, 
$3). In the first issue, Alice — now 
serving as the right hand of the 
Queen of Hearts — investigates 
a dark force that is twisting the 
magical world and is heading for 
Wonderland. A preview issue, 
"Two Bits," is available for 25 

On December 16, 1973, the U.K. 
radio show I'm Sorry, I'll Read 
That Again broadcast a hysteri- 
cal fifteen-minute adaptation of 
Wonderland, starring future Monty 
Python John Cleese, along with 
Greame Garden, Tim Brooke-Tay- 
lor, and Bill Oddie, the threesome 
who later became BBC TV's "The 
Goodies." You can purchase the 
(pirated) "GSD 5" CD-ROM disk, 
which has the show, along with 
many hours of other material, in 
.mp3 format, at www.thegoonshow. Contrariwise, the present 
editor will burn you a copy on an 
audio CD if you ask nicely.